Adrafinil Reviews ~ Adrafinil User reviews, Experiences, reddit

Why are reviews so important?

If you were thinking of purchasing a car, you’d scour the market for the best one. If you were to watch a film, you’d refer to the star rating before buying your cinema ticket. If you wanted to go on holiday to a particular place, you’d listen to the friend who had already visited. Having prior knowledge of anything to which you are about to offer your money seems like a given. 


However, screaming with greater importance than any of the above examples is the necessity of reading real reviews from real people who have tried various supplements. You can always change your mind about a material purchase but your health might not be as reversible. If you have made the decision to try a new drug, then the next step should surely be to find out more about it. The choice you have made is going to impact your body and your health, so it is worth having a snoop around before you commit to purchase.   


The pharmacy industry – and particularly the online community it has generated – can be filled with falsities and unreliable accounts. There is certainly much caution to be taken when trusting a website offering your required product. They might sing its praises, and these might be in tune with your questions, but it should always be remembered that many websites are trying to sell their product to increase their profits. You are essentially agreeing to put your money and health in the hands of a computer system: a lot of technological codes and a few images, but not much personable reliability.  




Trust word-of-mouth. Trust those who, at one point, were in the same position as you. There are plenty of reviews on internet forums wherein the vast majority of queries that might crop up are answered by actual users of the drug. However, though their response may satisfy your question, it is always important to make sure the person providing the review is reliable as well. Who are they? Do they actively participate in the online community? Worse than trusting any old website is trusting a fake account.  



Spotting a fake review


It might therefore be better to refer to the third party review software requiring the contributor to have purchased the product before. Verification for the user certainly validates their suggestions and advice. It is worth always remembering that subjectivity won’t equate to unanimous agreement. Meanwhile, a real person’s review is better than a computer company review; but your own judgement will always prevail over a potentially illegitimate account.  


Considering above, it is worth learning about the tell-tale signs of a fake account. Here are some examples of potentially illegitimate reviews on a variety of discussion boards:


Here, moderators have accompanied the comment with a warning statement:


Notice that there is no accompanying info, just a link to an online seller. It appears a bit dodgy, and should be treated with caution if you are tempted to click the link to buy the product.


On this thread, the user has since deleted their account. However, their comment appears to be promoting the use of other “stuff” to protect the liver. Is this relevant? Its food for thought.


[–][deleted] 1 year ago

On certain fitness supplement sites they sell stuff that you’re supposed to take with oral steroids that supposedly protects your liver. If you’re really concerned I’d check those out.

An example for the lazy


Although better to be gone than clogging up the thread, it is always worth reading thoroughly to check that all comments link up. If they don’t, then an illegitimate user could have had their comment removed by the moderators and you might not even notice.


So, what exactly do we have to notice in order to realise inauthenticity? Always remember these four pointers.




Obvious things to be wary of are contributors without proper usernames. These might include “Anonymous” or “Member”. On pages like Longe City, profile pictures accompany the names, so it is also worth noticing whether a default image remains. If this is the case, the user might be fake or not reliable and trusted on the discussion boards.


Profile Page


If they are regular and trusted contributors to the online community, then the number of posts they will have submitted will be of a fair amount. Pay attention, also, to how often they are online. This will be evident with the last time they submitted a post, for example, and usually this will be on a different thread than that which brought you to the profile page itself.


Post Content


There is cause for concern if a user chimes into the existing discussion with an irrelevant comment. The forum thread might be about the dosage of Adrafinil, but a person might pop up advertising a voucher code for a website selling the product. This obviously does not add anything to the conversation and suggests some kind of spam account used by a company.


Post Count

If their comment doesn’t seem out of place, then it is worth checking whether they return and/or answer other questions posed by fellow contributors. For example, a user might seem to agree with a previous comment about Adrafinil dosage, and their comment might seem legitimate. However, if another user directly asks them a question to which they never reply, then something will seem off. Regular and trusted users will continually check the threads for replies and, if they have sincere intent, will agree or disagree with other comments. Humans converse with each other, fake accounts don’t!


Adrafinil experiences


You’ve located a forum that seems legitimate. As you scroll, it is good to differentiate between the reviews that speak of the product itself, i.e. its effectiveness and so on, and those that talk about the service of the product, i.e. whether it came from a legitimate website. This review by mkith on Reddit, for example, begins by commenting on a previous contributing user’s reluctance to use Adrafinil, but then focusses more on the laws surrounding the product itself.

It is not a review but rather a suggestive addition to the thread that, while fairly helpful in terms of explaining drug legitimacy, offers little help by way of discussing its actual bodily effect:



Agree you are already on some meds plus you are young, you should have tons of energy. 🙂  

I’m not actually 100% sure on the laws. I think it is legal to order prescription meds for personal use. I forget modafinil is scheduled though, don’t know why it got that label  


Of course, this is good information to have in order to build a full picture before purchase. Sourcing your supplement from a reliable place, and knowing that your purchase is all above board, is equally as important as finding out about the drug itself. However, this will surely come after you’ve researched the effects and made the educated decision that this is the supplement for you. Only then are you ready to move onto the next step of physically locating the product from an online seller and double-checking its authenticity.  


This is why potential users should always first take note of the reviews that discuss physical experiences of the drug.

Take TrashPockets’ offering on Reddit, for example:


I’m a 5’10” 250lb male and a student. I have some ADD symptoms and while traditional stimulants are fun, I don’t really like the idea of taking them regularly. So I did some research and found the afinil family a while ago. I finally decided to pull the trigger on some adrafinil to test the waters on modafinil before I committed to the lengthy and (somewhat) costly process of buying 50-100 pills of a drug I’ve no experience with.  


I’ve been taking adrafinil (from Nootropics Depot) for about 5 days now and in short, I must say I approve. I’ve been experimenting with various doses, so I can’t provide much in the way of a guide for new people, but my experiences might help someone decide to pull the trigger.  


Pros: *Enhanced energy and focus.  

*I feel “up” all day, without the speedy feeling that stimulants offer.  



*I’ve been getting a little stomach irritation, nothing very bad and nothing I would describe as nausea, but I get occasional irritation nonetheless. Usually goes away pretty quickly, so there’s that.  


*I get occasional headachy type feelings.   


The review as a whole clearly explains the extent to which the product was thought to meet the user’s needs. Meanwhile, TrashPockets has been checked for validity: they are an active member of the community, having their email verified and a member for three years. Stats like these can be found by clicking on their username, which will bring up their profile user-page. Here, you can also access their contributions to other forum threads.   


In terms of the review itself, the full description and inclusion of cons as well as pros is suggestive of TrashPockets’ simple intention of sharing his experience of Adrafinil in order to both guide potential new users, while inputting into the existing discussion on the topic.   


Adrafinil user reviews


Once you’ve separated both fields of research into experience reviews and product reviews, it is much simpler to locate those that reliably answer your questions.   


Google is a wonderful thing in that it brings up pages upon pages of possible locations for your queries, based on a few key words. It is easy to see that FAQ’s can be answered across the board if savvy searches are conducted and trustworthy sources are found thereafter.  


Reddit offers many of these results. For example, I might wish to know whether a higher dosage than seems average for Adrafinil users will be damaging for me. One search and a whole thread of discussion appears. Here, user iwant2feel asks: 


For Adrafinil, does higher dosage mean more potency of effects? Or does it only add on to the duration? 


A plethora of responses follow. eebsamk, for instance, is given three points by other viewers of the forum, showing that his response is most helpful in the given context. 


Also, you should account for the fact that the longer you use adrafinil, the adaptive mechanism of your body basically upregulates the enzymes that convert adrafinil to modafinil, so the conversion rate increases and at some point you can start using less adrafinil for the same effect. I’ve noticed this after about four weeks of 4x/week use. It’s kinda like tolerance, but in reverse. 


Peak Nootropics adrafinil reviews claims to excel in customer service and the selling of quality products online. It sells the range of cognitive benefitting supplements, from Piracetam to Oxiracetam to, of course, Adrafinil.  


However, it remains important to consider legitimacy despite the website stating its authentic range of products. This is why referring to user reviews on different forums will provide ample background through which you, the pontential user, can make your own informed decision. 


Take idosv on Reddit, for instance. They ask the very important question of how to identify fake Adrafinil: 


I bought Adrafinil powder from Peak Nootropics: 

*orange colored 

*non-soluble in warm water 

*strongly smell like… marijuana, honestly 

*no noticeable effects (150mg to 350mg; I’m a light female) 

Should I try a higher dosage, or conclude that it may be fake? 


Warning signs such as the above, as experienced by this particular user, should definitely be taken seriously. These unexpected results found in the colouring and smell of the product highlight the necessity of fully researching what authentic Adrafinil should appear as upon purchase. Without prior knowledge, this user would have been none the wiser as to the potential illegitimacy of their supplement.  


What is more significant is that the user purchased the product from Peak Nootropics, the self-confessed trustworthy supplier, and still found cause for concern. This demonstrates how much caution should be taken in approaching the online purchase of a drug. 


idosv responded later, however, with the following statement


UPDATE: I got a script for Nuvigil and it also has no effect. I’m just a non-responder, unfortunately. My Adrafinil was legit. 


It seems unnecessary that to test the authenticity of one product, a user must alternate to another as well. Full awareness and savvy market searches prior to purchase will remove this issue, meaning that once you are equipped with knowledge, there is less chance of feeling the need to test your tolerance of other supplements in order to ascertain the legitimacy of the first one you bought.

Indeed, Adrafinil has been found in the very vast majority of cases to do what it says on the packet, working as a completely safe and excellent cognitive enhancer minus many of the side effects seen with counterpart smart drugs such as Modafinil.

Spending more money on other similar products because you aren’t sure of the legitimacy of this particular one is wasteful, especially considering the benefits that can be had with authentic Adrafinil. 


On the same thread, leemobile adds: 


I ordered adrafinil from Peak Nootropics last month and from what you’ve described it is similar to what I got. 


I also have armodafinil from a different source, and the Adrafinil from Peak Nootropics smells similar (the adrafinil smells way stronger, not sure if that’s because of the chemical difference). 


The user has tested Armodafinil from a different source, making his account somewhat reliable. The response also validates idosv’s questioning of the product, with the consensus on the smell/appearance of Peak Nootropic’s Adrafinil being that different to what may have been anticipated. Reaching these sorts of conclusions, with an apparently full picture of expectation in mind, is important before clicking the “Buy Now” button. 


Once you’ve explored one forum, it is worth swapping scene and searching another. This one on Longe City discusses the retailer itself. TVO asks: 


Has anyone used peak nootropics yet, alot of people on reddit don’t recommend them. Starting to get a little worried since they don’t have the tests of there product on there website, and they don’t even send you a tracking code after the order. Already ordered 500g of priracetam from them. Has anyone else used them?  


Interestingly, Peak Nootropics respond themselves: 


In regards to the reddit community, they don’t like us because an SEO company we hired as well as one of our affiliates “spammed” their forum by posting promotional links. This is the reason they don’t have us as a recommended supplier. We have tried repeatedly to get off this and even got our products tested at the lab they recommended. As you can see in the reddit review, we have our purity testing which has been confirmed by the mods. We have done more confirmed third party lab testing than any other company on their “reliable supplier list”.

Case and point, two of the mods there don’t like us and have a personal vendetta to tarnish our reputation even after repeated attempts to console and even offering to make a financial restitution to the community. We love longecity though!


This is an example of how internet users should remain wary of online suppliers. The retailer itself admits to spamming Reddit forums, which is certainly unhelpful for those who simply want to find realistic contributions on the product and its effects. There seems to be animosity between the company and the forums. This is definitely concerning because Reddit is, for the most part, constituted of real people who buy Adrafinil and other smart drugs in their real lives. These users are the consumer on to which companies like Peak Nootropics rely. 


Reddit themselves certainly acknowledge previous problems with spamming from Peak Nootropics. On their FAQ page here, they state that


“PeakNootropics has also been known to spam forums with shill accounts. This spam has tapered off and is no longer a significant issue.”


Luckily, then, they have removed much of the illegitimate reviews that cropped up, so potential users referring to the forum boards for the first time will most likely not encounter spam from the company. Always keep an eye out for similar issues from alternative sellers, though.


The forum responses that come afterwards criticise Peak Nootropics, but, again, this is indicative of how subjectivity can overwhelm during discussions. While some users such as TVO question the legitimacy of the company, others, like Murraythemailman, are approving: 


This is my first post and would just like to add that peak was my first nootropic order placed. I received piracetam and alpha gpc over a month ago and cannot say a bad thing about peak. Very satisfied with company and their services 


The whole thread discussion itself is worth a read to highlight the point of trusting your own judgement. It can be found here


Adrafinil Absorb Health reviews claims to be a company with the belief that people should not have to “spend their live savings” to benefit their health. Like Peak Nootropics, the company sell various supplements but also offer free worldwide shipping and a money back guarantee. There is also a one day handling claim. 


Adrafinil is the website’s best seller and can be bought in tablet form. What is more reassuring is that the company also offers products for immunity, sexual health, skin care, weight management and so on. It is an all-round health supplement supplier and is verified as a “doctor trusted” website. This information can be found if you look to the bottom right of the page. 


Unlike Peak Nootropics, though, there appears little animosity between Absorb Health and online contributors. Natural Health Product’s review concurs that Absorb Health Adrafinil has clinically demonstrated its capability to “increment mental readiness and learning capacities”. The page, found here, goes on to discuss the pros of the product.


“What makes it all appear as a more legitimate review is the fact that the website itself does not supply any products; it simply claims to be the “best US supplement reviewer”.


Its job, therefore, is to either criticise or commend. Interesting, then, that the final statement of the article urges readers to purchase Absorb Health Adrafinil. 


Plenty of forum readers are in agreement of the legitimacy and success when using Absorb Health Adrafinil. On Yahoo, for instance, Johnny adds to the dialogue: 


Yes, absorb health adrafinil is a legit product I found them two years ago after my last distributor didn’t send me the amount of adrafinil I paid for, and I have had nothing but great experiences with them. Adrafinil is not regulated by the FDA, but they have the highest quality I have found. I have taken it for quite some time and was so glad to find an adrafinil distributor that actually took pride and value into their product and cared about their customers. 


Reviews like these augment the view that Absorb Health is a more personable and accessible supplier. It is a family run company and this immediately suggests trustworthiness and a sense that profits are not paramount. 


It is also worth referring to the many videos around the web wherein users explain their use of Absorb Health Adrafinil. Any general search will bring up the variety of contributions by online vloggers.  


Olmifon user reviews


Olmifon was the marketed brand name of Adrafinil, but was discontinued in October 2011. While there are plenty of reports theorising the reasons for the discontinuation, the short conclusion is that the benefits/risks of Adrafinil were reassessed by the French Government and the results were inconclusive. These findings led to Cephalon, a biopharmaceutical company and original manufacturer of Olmifon, to stop marketing the drug in France. 


The prodrug minus its manufactured moniker can still be obtained cheaply online and this is why much of the reviews found refer simply to “Adrafinil” rather than Olmifon. The drug is the same except for the return to its original title.


If, however, you were to find a product claiming to be called Olmifon now, warning bells should sound in your mind. It is coming up to four years since the manufactured product’s discontinuation, so any website now claiming to sell new packets of Olmifon should be treated with caution.  



Adrafinil vs Modafinil – Full 2016 Guide

 What is Modafinil?



Modafinil is a eugeroic – or, simply, a wakefulness-promoting agent – with a primary purpose of combating narcolepsy amongst suffers.  Eugeroics differ from other stimulants because they are considered relatively non-addictive. This means that they do not cause the typical side effects experienced with most stimulants, like agitation and nervousness.


Let us first discuss the chemical components of Modafinil. It is a racemic mixture, and such mixtures have equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers. Enantiomers are the two forms in which large numbers of chemicals exist. Both forms are chemically and structurally identical, yet are nevertheless mirror images of the other. In other words, enantiomers are the ‘left’ and ‘right’ versions of a drug. These are called S and R enantiomers. One enantiomer is typically responsible for the majority of a drug’s effects, while the other can contribute to those positive effects. In other cases, the less dominant enantiomer can cause adverse side effects, or it be inert.


Interestingly Modafinil Most racemic mixtures are balanced equally. This means half of the mixture is ‘left’ enantiomer and the other half is ‘right’.  Modafinil is an equal combination of its S- and R- enantiomers, meaning that both have a psychoactive function. Just as you sometimes need two hands to do a job correctly, Modafinil uses both of its enantiomers to provide the ideal effect on body and mind.


Preliminary scientific evidence has found that Modafinil works through histamine signaling. This phrase might indeed baffle you if you aren’t familiar with biological terminology. What this essentially means is that the histamine receptors, found for example in the central nervous system, are provoked.  Michael J Minzenberg and Cameron S Carter’s journal here provides ample scientific research on Modafinil’s neurochemical actions and effects.  


Histamine acts a neurotransmitter, a chemical substance which is released at the end of a nerve fibre by the arrival of a nerve impulse. Neurotransmitters affect the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fibre, muscle fibre, or some other structure within the body. Modafinil enhances histamine activity by stimulating the central system. This increased activity therefore impacts other nerve fibres/muscle fibres in the body, accounting for its ability to stimulate a fatigued body.


As well as fighting tiredness, Modafinil also improves general mood and well-being amongst users, with positive improvements seen with mental focus, analytic capability and memory recall and retention.


Britain deems Modafinil a prescription-only drug. In America, meanwhile, Modafinil’s brand name is Provigil. It is considered a scheduled drug, meaning that it necessitates a prescription in order to obtain it legally.


What is Adrafinil?


Adrafinil is a pro-drug to Modafinil. This simply means that supplementation of it increases concentrations of Modafinil in the body. The liver changes Adrafinil to Modafinil. 


Similarly to Modafinil, Adrafinil’s cognitive benefits are enhanced by noted improvements in day-time alertness, motivation, mood and energy levels. It also does not generate the irritability, anxiousness and nervousness routinely experienced through the use of other stimulants. 


Britain does not measure Adrafinil under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, a legislation that governs the regulation of drugs. This means that it is not regulated. Adrafinil’s legal status and nootropics in general, nevertheless remains in grey area. It is lawful for purchase by British residents, but only for personal use.  In the U.S, however, the drug is currently legal and can be bought, prescription free, as an alternative to Modafinil. Though its manufactured moniker Olmifon was discontinued in 2011, Adrafinil itself can still be purchased easily online.


Why do they differ?


Modafinil and Adrafinil are two of the most popular stimulants available. Though both offer similar if not identical cognitive benefits, there are key distinctions between both.


Chemically speaking, the structures of both drugs are very similar:



Adrafinil Structure

adrafinil vs modafinil

Modafinil Structure









It is, however, with the body’s processing of each drug that differences become most apparent. Modafinil is processed through metabolic activity occurring mainly in the liver. Lesser contributions to the metabolising process are made through the activity of the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP). Cytochrome p-450 (often abbreviated “CYP”) is a class of enzymes that is involved in the metabolism of many medications and is located primarily in the liver. 


But, what exactly are enzymes? They exist in living organisms and catalyze specific biochemical reactions within the body.  At the beginning of a reaction process, molecules exist called ‘substrates’. The enzyme converts these into ‘products’. All metabolic processes in cells require enzymes to react within the body at rates fast enough to sustain life.


Adrafinil differs because it is changed into Modafinil in the liver. This means that it relies on greater enzyme activity to process correctly and efficiently.


The conversion process of Adrafinil and Modafinil sees the former breaking down into the latter as a compound. This is how it is metabolized.  Enzymes are relied upon more during the metabolic process of Adrafinil. As mentioned briefly in the metabolism of Modafinil, the enzyme involved in metabolizing Adrafinil when it reaches the liver is Cytochrome p-450. 


How quickly the liver is able to convert Adrafinil is dependent upon metabolic rate and the efficiency of the liver overall. Two people of the same sex, similar age and weight can take the same dose of Adrafinil but achieve very different results


In necessitating a more rigorous metabolism process, the most profound difference between Modafinil and Adrafinil is that the latter requires the greater use of Cytochrome p-450. Over time, if the drug is not taken cyclically, such enzymes can build up in the liver with potentially damaging effects on the organ as a whole.


Adrafinil vs Modafinil Dosage


For Adrafinil, it as advised to dose between 600 to 1200mg per day. It is further advised, as with the majority of supplements, to begin on a low dose, only increasing the amount after recognizing your own body’s reaction and tolerance. Adrafinil should not be taken in the afternoon and evening to prevent a sleepless night. Ideally, it should be taken 3 times a week and for no longer than five months. This is primarily to prevent side effects, tolerance and the build-up of enzymes in the liver. state that Adrafinil’s recommended dosage range is vast, ranging from 600 to 1,200mg. BodhiSvaha on explained their willingness to take both small doses and larger ones of Adrafinil:  


After extensive experimentation with dosage, I have settled on taking 300mg when I wake up and another 300 mg in the early afternoon. There does not seem to be much, if any, habituation or tolerance created by Adrafinil.


Occasionally I will take doses up to 1200 mg when a high degree of concentration is required. I have found this dose to be very effective at potentiating and improving the tryptamine experience, in particular. I find tryps sometimes bring a feeling of lethargy or body load with some cognitive dullness. Adrafinil counters this effect very nicely.


Here it is evident that, despite there being a large range of recommended doses for Adrafinil, all of them are safe. Whatever you choose within that range is dependent on your desired alertness and bodily tolerance. Reddit user ssitimefill explains the necessity of slowly upping Adrafinil dosage, as well as suggesting why a higher dose than Modafinil is required:


To my knowledge it is not established how what proportion of adrafinil is broken down into modafinil and what proportion into modafinilic acid.


This proportion likely varies person to person, and also by dose. Some studies have reported adrafinil more potent at lower doses.


The general psychological effect of adrafinil depends not only on the quantity converted into modafinil but the rate of this conversion.


300 mg of modafinil from adrafinil is not likely to produce an identical effect from 300 mg of modafinil.


Basically there is no way to determine optimum dose of adrafinil other than trial and error.


The best procedure is to start with low doses (measured via scale) and slowly increase dose until you reach the optimal, then sub-optimal dose. When you have reached sub-optimal dose (too much adrafinil) you can deduce what dose is optimal for you.


Because Modafinil does not transform in the liver, it generally requires lesser dosage to reach its optimum effect. Modafinil is typically sold in 100 mg or 200 mg tablets. The latter option is more popular due to its greater availability. 200 mg is indeed the recommended dose, to be taken once per day, usually during the morning. It may be taken with or without food. (


Some recommend starting with an initial intake of 100 mg Modafinil dosage. This helps with accustoming the body to the drug itself. An anonymous writer on posted his first use of 100mg Modafinil, describing its positive effects:


And today I tried modafinil 100 mg for the first time. I took it at around 10:45 AM today and it is now 4:35 PM. My experience has been much like those of others herein described– initial buzziness (~1 hr after I took the pill) that lasted about as long. But for the past 4 hours, I have been just plain awake. I have not succumbed to the usual desire to take a nap in the afternoons despite the near-90-degree heat, which usually puts me right to sleep. I have had no such desire in fact. I am not jittery or having unusual thoughts, etc.


It is also possible to take higher doses. Up to 400 mg per day has been shown to be very well-tolerated ( Pino on drugs-forum tried a variety of dosages and provides some succinct information of the results:




200 mg modafinil + caffeine: Pleasant vibe, easy and fast thinking. Able to solve sudokus a lot quicker. The bus driver becomes more self reassured in conversations and is able to focus more than 16 hours. Sleep quality is ok. (bp: 130/80)

200 mg modafinil + too much caffeine (4 cups of coffee): Anxiousness and some hypertension kicks in here. (bp: 140/93) Concentration is less than optimal in this region. 

400 mg modafinil + normal caffeine: Nice euphoria, but can also turn into anxiousness. 


It is clear that the recommended doses are speculative and dependent on personal accounts of drug use. There are certainly more user reviews around the internet that explain individual experiences of alternating dosage amounts. There is, of course, still the question of the differences in dosage between Modafinil and Adrafinil. Jjhurley on Reddit discussed the differences in dosage between both:


… most people tell me 300mg of adra is comparable to just 100mg of moda. Whether your ratio or this other ratio is correct doesn’t make too much a difference, but I have been taking 600mg of adra and don’t want to lose any potency. Is this to say I should go with 300-400mg of moda? If so, that’s a little upsetting because I was really hoping to have equal, if not better, experiences on just 200mg of moda.


ProfWiki agreed that Adrafinil should be taken in higher dosages than Modafinil:


I take 600 mg in order to get effects. This is equivalent to about 200 mg of modafinil. I think throwf0 read you as saying modafinil since he mentioned modafinil. Modafinil is a lot stronger than adrafinil. 150 mg of adrafinil would be about like 50 mg of adrafinil.

Anyway, like I said, 50 mg of Adrafinil is far too lose to be effective. 50 mg of MODAfinil might work okay for some but they typically are just breaking up a standard 100/200 mg dose.

Being that Adrafinil works by metabolizing into Modafinil, and that as a rule of thumb 1/3 of Adrafinil turns into modafinil, a 50 mg dose of Adrafinil would be just roughly 16-17 mg of modafinil. There wouldn’t be any effects from such a low level dose.


Adrafinil vs Provigil


Let us first make one distinction:


Adrafinil = generic drug                                              Provigil = brand name of Modafinil


It is often questioned what the difference between Provigil and Adrafinil is. However, the former is simply a branded name for the generic drug Modafinil, which, as we have now found, is the metabolite of Adrafinil. So long as users are acquiring pure generic versions of Adrafinil, then the same effects as Provigil will be felt and the advised dosage will essentially be identical.


It is therefore not unusual for potential users to question the differences between Provigil and Adrafinil. Moreover, it is certainly not unreasonable to question their differences. For instance, internet user Shatneresque questioned the difference between Modafinil and Provigil, which are the same drug, asking:


My pharmacy sent me a email saying I can now replace my Provigil ($125 a month) with the generic version and they need my okay to do so.

Before I say yes and say the money, I want to know if anyone has noticed any differences. I am very happy with the provigil and have been taking it for several years.



This query was answered by Serpens:


It appears that Cephalon, the maker of Provigil, has been purchased by Teva, titan generic manufacturer. There are currently three manufacturers selling a generic labeled ‘modafinil’ : Cephalon (brand holder), Teva, and Par. All three are using the same brand name NDA license on file with the FDA. In addition, Elsevier’s Clinical Pharmacology has images and references available for the generic product being shipped for all three drug companies.

They’re all the same pill. Images of all three products show a white oblong tablet with “Provigil” on one side, and the strength on the other. All products have the same inactive ingredients.


Queries like this prove that caution is imperative when deciding on which supplement to use. This is especially true if you are a first time user or are, like Shatneresque, accustomed to using one particular brand such as Provigil. Researching alternatives and finding the most information about whatever drug you are choosing is vital if you are to select the right one for you. Awareness is the key and there is no harm in asking questions that, to you, may sound obvious once they are answered.


About Provigil


Provigil was originally manufactured by Cephalon, the same company behind the previously branded version of Adrafinil (Olmifon).  Business editor Dell Poncet writes of how, in 1999, interest for both Cephalon and Provigil was taking off, with registered quarterly sales of $10.7 million. Being among the leading biopharmaceutical companies in the world, Cephalon flourished. In 2011, it was acquired by Teva, the largest generic drug manufacturer in the world for a huge $6.8 billion (read more here). There is little surprise, then, that Provigil is sold at quite a cost.


A 30-day supply of Provigil 200mg pills can cost as much as $1500. Buyers in the UK can therefore expect to pay even more if the pharmacy offers world-wide shipping.


Since branded Modafinil is so expensive, Adrafinil is clearly the best alternative. The latter drug does not come attached to a manufactured title, and is inexpensive yet easily attainable. What is more, it can be bought prescription-free online or by phone. There are plenty of legitimate outlets stocking Adrafinil and these can be accessed at the click of a button.  If economizing is one aspect of importance, then Adrafinil is certainly the best choice. 


Modafinil in India


More importantly health-wise, though, is the scary possibility of purchasing a dodgy-version of branded Modafinil online. With the cost of Provigil being so high, it is unsurprising that many prospective users look for a cheaper alternative for their first time trying the drug. Many turn to the internet’s grey market, where there is a lingering risk of being ripped off with tampered drugs. This is where extra caution and care should be applied.


Once users began contemplating off-label equivalents, international pharmacy websites quickly took the opportunity to sell these kinds of drugs. The most popular location from which many internet users buy unbranded Modafinil is India. Sources of the drug in India do not require strict quality control, nor are prescriptions required by users.  


In fact, there is much information to be considered with regard to India’s counterfeit drugs market. This article on New York Times discusses how:


India’s drug industry is one of the country’s most important economic engines, exporting $15 billion in products annually, and some of its factories are world-class, virtually undistinguishable from their counterparts in the West. But others suffer from serious quality control problems. The World Health Organization estimated that one in five drugs made in India are fakes. A 2010 survey of New Delhi pharmacies found that 12 percent of sampled drugs were spurious.


Meanwhile, this article on attests to the New York Times’ discussion, stating that:


The Food and Drug Administration recently conducted a series of raids in India to uncover counterfeit drugs. The raids yielded large quantities of substandard medicines and resulted in several arrests. However, in India, the penalties for making and selling counterfeit medicines are minimal, the convictions are rare, and the profits are enormous. Since the raids late last year, the problem has only gotten worse.



Alarm bells should definitely ring here. Without quality control, many drugs that appear on international websites do not contain legitimate ingredients. It is a huge gamble to assume your purchased pills are pure or authentic. There’s a great possibility that you might not experience the proper effects of the medication and there is serious potential that you may have toxic reactions to the ingredients in fake versions of the drug. Some websites and online Nootropics communities maintain lists of verified and trustworthy Modafinil vendors, but such vendors do not generally stay on the lists for long. In many cases, a trusted supplier can end up sending out a fake or ineffective batch of pills even after you have developed a long-standing relationship with them. It is almost impossible to protect against this risk. 


There is really only one sensible alternative if you find the price of Provigil unreasonable, or if you are contemplating buying potentially contaminated off-label versions from India. Users should purchase Adrafinil from a reputable supplier instead, rather than paying the very serious costs of purchasing from an unreliable source abroad.


Adrafinil vs Modafinil forum


There are many reviews across the internet on individual preferences: Adrafinil or Modafinil. It is all, of course, subjective to user experience. Whilst some remain skeptical towards the newer of the two drugs, Adrafinil, there are huge amounts of successful reviews to be considered. On reddit, jjhurley writes:


Long story short, today is just my 3rd day using adrafinil and I’m impressed with the results so far.

I keep reading from people who’ve experienced both adra & moda is that they prefer modafinil. To me it is surprising there would be a whole lot of difference given what we know about adrafinil converting to modafinil once in your system. I understand the conversion takes time but I wouldn’t think that to make a significant impact to different effects.


It is also important to remember that Adrafinil is converted into Modafinil once in the liver. Many users therefore experience the same results with both drugs, and are positive in their opinions of both. DoyouknowmyPW on Reddit concurs, stating that:


I’ve been using Adrafinil and Modafinil for a few weeks now during the workweek. 100-150mg for Modafinil, 200-270 for Adrafinil. I’ve never noticed any painful side-effects, might just be a coincidence. Sharp pain like that could be trapped gas (of course I am not a physician though!).
It does help greatly staying more alert during the day. Before I would have issues some days where I am truly struggling to keep my eyes open, especially during meetings. I’ve fallen asleep at least twice for a brief second because my eyes were just too heavy. Since I’ve been taking the morning dose that sleepiness has gone away and I am now on a better sleep schedule because I feel tired when I’m suppose to.


Some users speak of branded versions of the drugs. For example, Akoward on drugs-forum writes:


Recently got a hold of some Nuvigil. Have had previous experience with Olmifon (Adrafinil). As has been said before its much more potent at lower dose that Adrafinil. I only need 1/2 a pill to do what 2x300mg Adrafinils were doing for me. I took a whole Nuvigil the first time and was more productive in that single day that I had been in ages. Got all my work done, worked on personal projects… it was amazing. I will say that some of the physical side effects were a little troubling (ever present tightness in the collarbone to middle neck area, massive restless legs)


It is important to see that with Akoward’s review, despite him alternating to the branded Armodafinil, side-effects were still experienced. This goes to show that Adrafinil, though not manufactured under a moniker, is no less competent in generating the excellent results that might be expected from those drugs which sound more ‘professional’.


Adrafinil vs Modafinil vs Armodafinil 


Like Adrafinil and Modafinil, Armodafinil is a stimulant used to combat fatigue. Introduced in 2007, Armodafinil appears under brand names such as Nuvigil, Artvigil, and Waklert. It is purportedly more effective at lower doses than its relatives Adrafinil and Modafinil. 


Armodafinil is an enantiopure drug. Enantiopure drugs contain only one of the enantiomers (spoken about earlier), R or S. The R enantiomer is longer acting and is most responsible for the effects of Modafinil specifically. Since the S enantiomer is not as strong, Armodafinil’s dosage is therefore lower. Most doses are 150mg compared to Modafinil’s 200mg standard dose.


Whilst the effects last for roughly the same time, Armodafinil takes longer to reach its peak than Modafinil, and therefore even longer than Adrafinil. This is simply because the S enantiomer reacts and leaves the body faster. Remember, Armodafinil does not have the S enantiomer, whereas Modafinil does. Adrafinil does, too, because Modafinil is a component within it. Because of this, users find that the effects of Armodafinil take longer to make themselves apparent – a potential disadvantage for prospective users.


So, how is Armodafinil processed? Dopamine is a compound existing as neurotransmitter within the body. It is also precursor of other substances including adrenaline. Armodafinil is an indirect dopamine receptor agonist. What this essentially means, then, is that Armodafinil provokes the dopamine levels in the body. This page offers further succinct information about Armodafinil, as well as Modafinil and Adrafinil. 


Armodafinil is metabolized in much the similar way as Modafinil. It relies on amide hydrolysis primarily, and enzyme activity from by cytochrome P450 secondly. Amide Hydrolysis refers to the reaction with water of amides – a compound) (


As a consequence, this means that is does not rely as much on heavy enzyme activity in the liver. Adrafinil does. This presents further difference that may be considered by potential users. However, it is important to remember to stick to dosage guidance. If taken properly, and often cyclically, Adrafinil is no more threatening to the liver than Modafinil or Armodafinil.


Because Armodafinil, Modafinil and Adrafinil are all very similar in terms of effect, there is much discussion about which is the best. With regard to Modafinil and Armodafinil specifically, some may assume that because small dosages are needed for the latter that it is more efficient. However, it is important to remember individual sensitivity levels. Different drugs can have different reactions for different people. Potency is therefore not the only factor; the personal experience of using either Armodafinil or Modafinil is equally important. A trial and error approach may be necessary, but, of course, extensive research to find the best possible supplement for you is paramount.


In undertaking research, then, you may discover information that suits your needs. For example, here on, it is proposed that, unlike Modafinil, Armodafinil will not actually disturb your existing sleep patterns. Modafinil users might agree a good night’s sleep is difficult to achieve depending on the dosage.


Reddit user guitar1560 states that


I took 50mg two days in a row twice. Couldn’t sleep well the second night both times


Whereas SequenceConvenience writes


I’ve experienced pretty strong sleep changes while taking modafinil, but nothing that has been negative. I actually seem to need less sleep, at least in the sense that it is very easy for me to get out of bed the day after taking modafinil. Then again, I also don’t seem to have much in the way of dreams during those nights.


Armodafinil does not impact sleep pattern. However, with SequenceConvenience’s review, it is clear that some find this a positive effect of Modafinil while others, like guitar1560, may be disappointed. 


Respective costs of the drugs might further influence your decision. KimberCT on Longe City tried both Armodafinil and Modafinil, but was swayed somewhat by the price of Nuvigil (the branded name of Armodafinil):


Currently taking 250mg armodafinil daily. To be honest, I kind of prefer modafinil. It seems to have a little more of a quick kick to it. Probably that isomer with a short half life peaking. Other than that, I can’t tell the difference between Nuvigil and modafinil (Sun Pharma). I’d probably have continued taking modafinil, but Cephalon has jacked the price since Nuvigil was FDA approved. With an Rx, Provigil is twice the price of Nuvigil. Their way of getting everyone onto Nuvigil before Provigil’s patent expires.


Adrafinil, meanwhile, can be obtained very cheaply online because it does not exist under a manufactured name. Nevertheless, many of these drugs are safe to use even if they lack a moniker like Provigil or Nuvigil. To stop concerns of the legitimacy of your purchased drug, always ask that your online manufacturer provides a COA (Certificate of Authenticity) on demand. This means that the substance batch has undergone a third-party laboratory analysis to ensure that your purchased drug matches its label and is not contaminated.


A common side-effect of Adrafinil is that the urine can smell different after ingestion of the drug. This is because one of Adrafinil’s metabolites contains a sulphur-based compound, and sulphur is strong smelling in itself.


However, these criticisms are not limited to Adrafinil alone and it should not sway potential users away from this particular drug. Modafinil has also been found to change the odor of urine. For example, PhysicsMaestro on Longe city queries:


I’ve been using modafinil (modalert) for about 8 months now, and regularly noticed a distinct smell of my urine whenever taking it. However, with this armodafinil, I don’t seem to notice it, which worries me a bit (i.e., not really what it states to be). Has anyone else noticed this difference between armodafinil and modafinil? I thought maybe the S-enantiomer could be metabolized and excreted quicker, thus resulting in an early onset smell, but I am just guessing.


Jadamgo answered:


The difference could easily be due to one of the excipients of the tablet, not the active ingredient. It’s also possible that only the S-enantiomer causes the smell, and of course, there’s the possibility that either these pills or the old ones didn’t actually contain modafinil. Sometimes they contain caffeine or dimethylamylamine or other stimulants, either mixed with modafinil or completely replacing it.


PhysicsMaestro thereafter concurrs:

I thought the odorous urine was ubiquitous to all variants of modafinil, resulting from its metabolites. But I guess the smell could be dependent on the enantiomer. I am willing to assume that whatever enzyme metabolizes modafinil to modafinil acid would leave its chirality intact. I don’t think it would be the excipients since the smell is so widely reported with different sources (and the modafinil has a sulfiyl group, so)


Nor does Armodafinil escape the urine issues. An anonymous writer on wrote:


Oh, and the pill tastes awful. Don’t let it get stuck in your mouth. And my pee starts to smell like it, too, but I get used to it


It is therefore important not to be selective of criticism based on what drug you have been swayed by. If you read that Modafinil is apparently “safer” because it does not rely on rampant enzyme activity, then do remember to include other issues such as cost-efficiency and, of course, other side-effects that might become more apparent than rare liver problems. These side-effects might include nausea, chest-pain or a faster heart rate (


Adrafinil stands out as the most cost-effective, and, though it has been reported to alter urine odor, it is not alone. Modafinil, the more expensive, and Armodafinil, with a longer reaction time, also generate similar side-effects.


As well as reviews on specific effects of Adrafinil, Armodafinil or Modafinil, there are plenty of general overviews to be found around the internet. On Reddit, BitcoinOperatedGirl writes of her experience:


I tried the adrafinil first, starting with a low dose of 200mg one morning. I prepared a capsule and put it in a baggie next to my pillow before I went to sleep. When my alarm clock rang in the morning, I swallowed the capsule, silenced the alarm clock, and went back to sleep. I was expecting the stimulatory effect to eventually wake me up, as a caffeine pill would, but I ended up sleeping for two more hours. I felt a little disappointed after getting up and not feeling any stimulation, so I decided to add an extra 400mg to the mix.

The rest of the day, I was in a fairly good mood. I thought that I was maybe a little more energetic and motivated than usual. I was fairly productive and I worked out. The effect wasn’t what I expected, however. I’ve read people on here talking about feeling wired, and “laser beam focus”, but a whole 600mg of adrafinil felt nothing close to what I imagined (I guess I imagined it would feel like a mild dose of ritalin or something). On the upside, I experienced no substantial anxiety, whereas all the amphetamine-like drugs make me very uncomfortably anxious (I really can’t stand them, they feel disgusting to me). I didn’t really feel a crash and I went to bed at my normal hour.

I’m experimenting with adrafinil again today. I took 800mg this time. I was feeling particularly tired this morning (cripplingly tired, lethargic really). I definitely feel more energetic now. I’ve gotten some work done, I’m feeling the drive to write walls of text on reddit and I’m going to have a workout in a few minutes. I don’t expect to have any motivational issues today. Maybe I’ll even cook something fun. Only unfortunate side-effect seems to be a mild headache, but advil seems to be taking care of that.

I also tried armodafinil a week ago. Took a small 75mg dose in the morning. Same setup as with adrafinil. I also fell back to sleep for 2 hours. I felt pretty anxious that day and also got a headache. I can’t quite be sure the armodafinil is to blame but I suspect it is. Seems much more anxiety-inducing than adrafinil, which is unfortunate given that it seems adrafinil is worse for your liver. Armodafinil is probably just not for me.


Nezxon on LongeCity meanwhile states that:


I’m taking 75mg Adrafinil (Olmifon) twice daily and I haven’t experienced any side effects. I’d like to give Armodafinil a try, perhaps even safer in the long-term than Modafinil is.


These kinds of reviews certainly help to build a solid picture of each drug’s story. Undertaking research like this to decide on which drug is preferable to you is definitely something you should embark on before picking at random a supplement based on one review.


Adrafinil vs Modafinil reddit


The only notable difference in reviews between Modafinil and Adrafinil is that the latter takes longer to take effect.  For example, justmodz1 stated that:


adrafinil is the precursor of modafinil in that it came first and led to the discovery of modafinil in fact adrafinil turns into modafinil in the body due to breakdown of it molecules which actually means that the two have the same effects but adrafinil takes longer to take effect.


While KPC100 agreed that:


Adrafinil gets turned into Modafinil in your system. Because of this, you need a much larger dose and it takes longer to take effect.


Although it does have a longer reaction time, this certainly shouldn’t be a downfall of Adrafinil.  It is simply a case that Adrafinil’s chemical processing takes a little longer. However, once complete, the results are just as effective as those found with Modafinil. Take into consideration, also, that Adrafinil will certainly stimulate, energize and ultimately shake you awake. The seemingly longer period of time before this happens will soon become irrelevant when the benefits are reaped.  Further Reddit reviews compare other aspects of Adrafinil and Modafinil.


Jjhurley, commenting on the actual nature of each drug, states that:


I keep reading from people who’ve experienced both adra & moda is that they prefer modafinil. To me it is surprising there would be a whole lot of difference given what we know about adrafinil converting to modafinil once in your system. I understand the conversion takes time but I wouldn’t think that to make a significant impact to different effects.


While the same user goes on to discuss issues of costing, in the end suggesting that, in terms of price, they would definitely prefer Adrafinil:


I was really hoping to have equal, if not better, experiences on just 200mg of moda. The reason I’d like to not take more than that is simply cost. At $1.50-2.00 per 200mg pill of moda (prices based off the quantities I’d be ordering as well as variation in supplier prices) it’s too costly to have to take twice that for my own personal budget. To be honest, even at $1.50-2.00 per pill/200mg is already high for my budget.

I can get 50g of adrafinil for $98 which comes out to up to 50% cheaper a single moda dose/pill of 200mg. If conversion ratios are right and I’d need two pills or 400mg of moda though then my adra would be 75% cheaper.


There are plenty of important aspects to consider when choosing between Modafinil or Adrafinil.  Firstly, selecting the safest and most reliable drug should be of paramount interest. Whereas Adrafinil is often tested by third parties and is shipped nationally rather than across sees, Modafinil (both branded and unbranded versions) is often left untested and sent from India. Quality control is a big issue of concern for international pharmacies and should definitely guide your final decision.


Pricing is also important to consider. Although you might think you’re getting a better deal by choosing a cheaper off-label version from India, it is still not as easy to buy Modafinil as it is Adrafinil. Most venders of Modafinil do not accept Paypal. This service offers secure buyer protection. With the option of a legitimate, nationally supplied alternative in Adrafinil, it is illogical to risk your bank account details instead – just to purchase a drug that will likely be contaminated and unsafe.


Adrafinil Powder Online – The 2016 Complete Guide


Adrafinil Powder Dosage

There are several different ways to measure powdered Nootropics. For the substances that aren’t too potent, a scoop can be used; this is often provided with the product. Whilst scoops may be an easy option without the hassle of purchasing another measuring device, they are not very accurate. The amount of powder that fits in the scoop will be dependent upon the density of the substance. Generally speaking, this method would not be recommended for Adrafinil powder. Adrafinil powder is a potent substance and one that should only be taken in small quantities. Since very large Adrafinil doses can be toxic, it is best to take the time to measure Adrafinil powder dosage accurately.


The majority of people taking Adrafinil powder seem to measure the dosage using accurate (0.001) scales. This should provide a much more accurate measure of Adafinil powder, and ensures that the consumer knows precisely how much they are taking. It is possible to buy relatively cheap scales from online marketplaces such as Amazon. Weighing boats may also help the process.


adrafinil powder


Tip: keep your phone away from your scales as having it close can disturb the reading.


Ensuring that the Adrafinil powder dosage is accurate is also important because people may react differently to the substance, and the ‘optimal dosage’ will vary from person to person. It is often recommended that when you first take Adrafinil powder, you take a relatively small dose (e.g. 100mg) and work your way up gradually. This way you will be able to monitor your response to each dose in detail, making it easier to work out which dose works best for you. It may be best to take each dosage for a week or two before moving up to the next amount.


Whatever dose you opt for, sources state that you should not take Adrafinil daily, sticking to a maximum of two or three times a week at times when you need to feel alert. Adrafinil is usually sold in 300mg doses when in capsule form. The majority of people recommend 300mg as a maximum dose, although some have reported taking up to 600mg on a regular basis. For more information please check our dedicated Adrafinil Dosage page.

Alza 36, a user on drugs-forum, describes his experience when taking just 50mg Adrafinil powder:


“About 30 minutes after dosing, I began to feel the onset; I felt maybe a little bit heavier, my eyes were open a little more, I felt as though I was obligated to pay attention to uninteresting things. 90 minutes into the experience, I began feeling what I believe its full effects. I had an increased awareness of what was going on around me, I felt very optimistic about everything, and I had almost God-like powers to think and concentrate. I felt very much awake … It is now six hours after the dose, and I am still feeling the plateau of this drug.”


‘Shphongle 22’ on the same thread wrote that they take doses of 600mg Adrafinil four times a week. This variance in dosage just goes to show how differently people can react to the same substance, and reinforces the importance of identifying your ‘optimal dosage’ before taking Adrafinil regularly. It should be mentioned that taking large amounts of Adrafinil on a regular basis is not recommended and could cause adverse side effects.



Adrafinil Bulk Powder


adrafinil powder bulk


Adrafinil powder is available to buy in bulk from some vendors. Generally speaking, purchasing in bulk will reduce the price of Adrafinil powder per gram, but there are some things to consider before deciding to buy in bulk.


Firstly, you need to ensure that the vendor is reliable. Since Adrafinil is not sold in high street stores in most countries, or on the websites of any well-known health stores, it can be difficult to find a reliable vendor. No brands of Adrafinil powder have been approved by the FDA or MHRA. As such, people often have to purchase Adrafinil powder from lesser-known websites, and often from international companies.


It is not recommended that you purchase in bulk straight away from a company that you have not used before, particularly if the company is not well-known. Before purchasing, you should look for independent customer reviews of the vendor, and check that their website and payment methods are safe. It may also be worth looking for customer reviews of the product itself from the exact website, and check whether or not previous customers have had positive experiences with the company and believe that the Adrafinil powder sold by them is pure. Also look for a certificate of analysis (COA).

Issues with customs may also be heightened when purchasing in bulk. A large package containing significant amounts of Adrafinil powder is more likely to be prevented from entering a country than a small package, which may slip past the system. In many countries, it is legal to import a small amount of Adrafinil for personal use, but illegal to import large quantities. If a bulk package of Adrafinil is spotted by customs, it may therefore be stopped and sent back to the seller.


customs adrafinil


Companies based in China and southern Asia are more generally renowned for offering Adrafinil powder in bulk at relatively cheap prices, however, these companies may also prove difficult to communicate with. It is important that you are confident in the ability to contact the company you are buying from, and discuss any potential problems with them. You want to be sure that you understand the procedure if the package does not make it through customs. There have also been reports of Chinese vendors being unreliable and sometimes sending customers the wrong product.


Adrafinil shelf life


adrafinil expiry date


Finally, it is important to remember that Adrafinil powder does not last forever. It is thought to have a shelf life of around two years, after which time you should not consume the substance. The MHRA states that Modafinil tablets have a shelf life of two years, but it would be worth checking with your Adrafinil vendor what the shelf life is before buying in bulk. You want to be sure that you don’t purchase far too much of the substance and end up throwing away a large amount of the batch. In order to make sure that you make the most of your money, it may be useful to work out precisely how much you may use in a two year period before buying Adrafinil powder in bulk.


To summarise, before purchasing in bulk you should remember that:


  • The powder may be more likely to be stopped at customs and sent back to the sender
  • Adrafinil powder does have a use-by date: it may not work out cheaper if you end up throwing half of it away
  • Some vendors may be unreliable; ensure that you are dealing with a safe and efficient company who are easy to contact before purchasing from them in bulk


Adrafinil Powder City

Powder City is a popular website for buying Adrafinil powder (and other Nootropic substances) in bulk. Between 5g and 50g of Adrafinil powder is available from this website costing between $13.87 and $74.95. There are a number of positive reviews on the official website regarding the product and the company. The company is based in the Unites States but does ship internationally (including to the UK, Australia and Canada). The website contains a good selection of information regarding the company and the products, and a returns policy and a 90 day satisfaction guarantee are offered on products.


Pill Scout provides a review of Adrafinil powder purchased from Powder City. The user claimed that the powder they received dissolved well in near-boiling water and had a very strong odour and bitter flavour. These are supposedly signs that the Adrafinil is genuine. The other sign to look out for is very strong smelling urine.


It seems that the appearance of Adrafinil can vary, and this is not to say that any of them are unpure, but likely and differing synthesis route. 


Photograph of Adrafinil powder from Powder City by Pill Scout


adrafinil powder


Checklist: Buy Adrafinil Powder


As mentioned above, it can be very difficult to know whether or not an online retailer is reliable and selling a genuine product – particularly if they are based abroad and are not a very well-known company, as is often the case for Adrafinil vendors. There are a number of things that you can check from the website and a quick Google search to determine whether or not a seller may be reliable.


Things to look for in an online retailer:


  • Independent customer reviews
  • A certificate of analysis
  • Contact details for the company (not just an online form)
  • Information about the product manufacturer 
  • Money-back guarantees
  • Safe payment method
  • Details of returns policy, and what may happen if product stopped at customers


Product Image and COA


If an image is provided on the website, then check the label and ingredients. A batch number should also be provided along with the COA. This certificate should be provided by a third party laboratory, which has checked that the product is genuine, and that the ingredients and product label are accurate. If a COA is not provided on the webpage, then it is recommended that you contact the vendor and ask for them to send it to you.


Adrafinil Ebay


adrafinil ebay


It is best not to buy Adrafinil from online marketplaces such as eBay; this is because the products sold here are not regulated and so it would be relatively easy for the seller to send you a fake (or even dangerous) product. Companies that specialise in supplements and sell a range of products may be deemed more reliable. Larger companies may be better organised and offer better customer service; those that are well-established are also likely to be the subject of more independent customer reviews, making it easier for you to judge their reliability before purchasing from them.


Customer reviews are important


Remember to search for customer reviews of the company and the product before purchasing Adrafinil in bulk. Do not always trust reviews provided on the official website itself; instead, use a search engine to look for independent customer reviews from real customers. The vendor should provide plenty of information about the company and the product on their website. Full contact details should be available, as well as an in-depth description of the product, how it works, any potential side effects, and whether or not there are people who shouldn’t take the product. The company should also provide a disclaimer stating that the product has not been approved by the FDA and is not intended to treat or cure any illness.


adrafinil customer review

If you are looking to buy Adrafinil powder in bulk, then it may be best to contact the company first. This way you can judge the company by how long they take to reply, the information that they provide and the quality of their reply. Also make sure that the company use a safe payment method. Some companies will offer a money-back guarantee – this is definitely a plus, but be sure to check the terms and conditions of the guarantee before assuming that you will qualify. Always practive due diligence before commiting to a large purchase online. 


Adrafinil Powder Review


Adrafinil can be bought as powder or in capsule form. Some people also opt to buy Adrafinil powder and then cap it themselves, using a capping machine. There are positives and negatives to both methods. By purchasing Adrafinil powder you have more control over the dosage (i.e. the ability to increase the dosage by, say, 50mg). Capsules on the other hand almost always come in 300mg doses. This would not be beneficial for the user on who stated that he got the full effects of Adrafinil at just 50mg.


capsules adrafinil


Similarly, if somebody determined through experimentation that their optimum dosage was between 300mg and 600mg, then it may be best to use Adrafinil powder and divide it up as it is not usually possible to buy capsules between these doses. This is primarily because Adrafinil may cause side effects when taken in doses above 300mg. Weighing Adrafinil powder yourself could also be more accurate; it can provide a more specific dose and eradicates the possibility that capsules are ‘bulked out’ with other, inactive substances.


On the other hand, Adrafinil powder may be more difficult to transport than capsules, and harder to take subtly. The powder is also renowned for having a highly unpleasant taste and so consuming it in beverage form may be challenging.


Nezxon on LongeCity:

“Adrafinil definitely has a really bad smell and taste”


adrafinil taste


Taking the capsules is also a lot less hassle than capping the powder yourself. Many Adrafinil users have mentioned the fiddly process of capping Adrafinil, often stating that it is not worth the time and mess.


Sleepyfishie on Reddit:


“In terms of effective dose: I slightly notice 300mg. 600 mg registers, but less than 100mg of modafinil or 75mg of armodafinil. It’s incredibly difficult to get that much powder into capsules (and due to the consistency of the powder, it takes forever to fit into each cap). Dissolving it in liquid is simply unbearable, for me.”


Buying Adrafinil powder in bulk may be more cost-effective for those who take the substance regularly, and know of a reliable supplier. This method is usually considerably cheaper than purchasing smaller amounts. It is then up to the consumer whether they wish to dissolve the substance and drink it, or put it in to capsules themselves. It is important that the consumer invests in some device to accurately measure doses as too much Adrafinil can cause side effects. Purchasing a scale or capping device may cost money, but would only be a one-off purchase and so may result in savings in the long-run.


Adrafinil powder vs capsules


Adrafinil powder Adrafinil Capsules


  • Can be capped or dissolved in a beverage
  • Potential for more accurate dosage



  • Difficult to transport
  • Unpleasant taste in beverage form
  • Fiddly process of capping



  • Easy to consume
  • Easy to transport
  • Averts unpleasant taste


  • Difficult to accurately control dosage


How to take Adrafinil Powder


Adrafinil powder is water-soluble, and so it is usually recommended that the powder is taken on an empty stomach. Taking Adrafinil on a full stomach could reduce its effect since it is absorbed and eliminated from the body very quickly. It has been stated that 1g of pure Adrafinil should dissolve fully in hot water. It may be best to take Adrafinil powder around 15 minutes before eating in order to optimise the rate of absorption.


As mentioned previously, a consumer should begin by taking a small amount and increase this gradually in order to gauge the optimal dosage for them. Avoid taking the substance at night time or within the hours before you plan to go to sleep as it does have a stimulant effect. To avoid potential side effects or the development of a tolerance, it is recommended that you consume Adrafinil powder in cycles. For example, taking the substance for a week or two, and then having a break for a week.


adrafinil how to take


People who have taken Adrafinil powder dissolved in water often describe an unpleasant taste. The powder can taste very bitter and Sulfuric. Some recommend that mixing the substance with a small amount of cranberry juice or MIO may help to reduce this taste, making it easier to drink. Alternatively, you could cap the powder yourself. This can be difficult to do by hand, but it is possible to buy a capping device that should make the process a little easier.


Taking Adrafinil may also make urine and sweat smell strongly Sulfuric. Whilst this is an unpleasant effect, it is often used as a way to determine whether or not Adrafinil powder is genuine. It was noted in a LongeCity thread that besides the smells and solubility of Adrafinil powder, another way to tell whether the substance is fake, is by performing a Marquis Reagent test:


“Adrafinil should react the same as amphetamine on a Marquis reagent test, that is orange->brown. Kits are available on amazon.”


adrafinil powder online


2016: Complete guide to Adrafinil side effects


Adrafinil: a quick re-cap


It is worth admitting from the outset that available literature on Adrafinil is sparse in comparison to its alternative, Modafinil. This, however, should not swerve users from opting for Adrafinil.


Adrafinil began its development in France in the late 1970s and is now considered a eugeroic, i.e., a wakefulness-promoting agent. Its cognitive benefits are enhanced by noted improvements in day-time alertness, motivation, mood and energy levels. 


So…does it do what it intends? Plenty of user reviewers think so.


“This product has worked remarkably for me thus far. I can definitely tell the difference between this and any other stimulants I’ve tried. The difference being Adrafinil creates a much smoother feeling of being awake and alert” (Danny on Powder City)


 “I had an increased awareness of what was going on around me, I felt very optimistic about everything, and I had almost God-like powers to think and concentrate. I felt very much awake” (Alza_36 on Drugs-forum)


“This product has worked very well just as described. I am put in a better mood, become more motivated, feel less stressed, and able to focus and problem solve much easier” (Corey on Powder City)


“Adrafanil kicked in after an hour of orally ingesting the substance, one 300 milligram capsule, and immediately I was in the zone, and knew it was the strongest nootropic I had ever taken” (Stephen on


“It lacks the over-stimulation of amphetamines, and instead has a mellow openness” (LifeSucceedsDeath on Drugs-forum)


adrafinil review


In Britain, Adrafinil is not a controlled drug and does not require a prescription. This means that it is not measured under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, a legislation that governs the regulation of drugs. However, Adrafinil’s legal status remains in grey area. It is lawful for purchase by British residents, but only for personal use. The drug is, however, currently legal in the U.S. and UK so can be bought, prescription free, as an alternative to Modafinil.


What was Olmifon?


However, in October 2011, Olmifon, the marketed brand name of Adrafinil, was discontinued. There are plenty of reports theorising the reasons for the discontinuation. In short, the benefits/risks of Adrafinil were reassessed by the French Government and the results were inconclusive. These findings led to Cephalon, a biopharmaceutical company and original manufacturer of Olmifon, to stop marketing the drug in France.




Despite this, the popularity of Adrafinil has risen. Why? It can still be obtained cheaply online without its manufactured moniker. There are, of course, risks to consider when buying from the internet. The drug itself may not be the real deal, so it is therefore imperative that your online manufacturer can provide a COA, or Certificate of Analysis, on demand. This means that the substance batch has undergone a third-party laboratory analysis to ensure that your purchased drug matches its label, and that it is not riddled with contaminants.


So, once acquired, how does Adrafinil actually work for you? Well, initially, let us consider Modafinil. This particular drug was developed to counteract sleep disorders such as Narcolepsy. Then, Adrafinil came along; a prodrug to its relative Modafinil. The supplementation of Adrafinil increases concentrations of Modafinil in the body. 


How does Modafinil work?


modafinil side effects


When ingested, Adrifinil affects the Dopamine and Serotonin systems. Dopamine improves mood, while Serotonin plays a pivotal role in controlling our sleep cycles and pleasure feelings. Both are very powerful neurotransmitters. A neurotransmitter is:


“a chemical substance which is released at the end of a nerve fibre by the arrival of a nerve impulse and affects the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fibre, a muscle fibre, or some other structure”.


Adrafinil brain


Histamines act as a neurotransmitter. The histamine receptors are found, for example, in the central nervous system. Modafinil has been found to enhance histamine activity by stimulating the central nervous system. This increased activity therefore impacts other nerve fibres/muscle fibres in the body; a process improving overall levels of stimulation, and impacting positively on focus, attention and motivation. Adrafinil generates the same results, but is not paired with the feelings of irritability, anxiousness and nervousness which are routinely experienced through the use of other stimulants.  Many reviews sing the praises of Adrafinil. One such Reddit reviewer, cccg, explained their experience:


“The first day I took them, I could focus on tasks I would have otherwise thought to be really boring, and that for hours. After a 10-12 hour day at the office and only 5 hours of sleep the night before, I had plenty of energy to go for a 10km jog, and I was running faster than ever. It felt like a bunch of warning receptors inside my body had been muted. I could now choose to either consider or dismiss signals of hunger, fatigue, desire to procrastinate, pain in my legs, or a high heart rate. This ability to DECIDE what I was going to spend my time on made me feel very powerful and in total control. I thought I was the protagonist in “Limitless”.”


Meanwhile, a Longe City user (Rhcan09) agreed that Adrafinil’s side effects excluded those typical of other stimulants:


“There were absolutely none of the side effects of caffeine or other stimulants. No jitters, no crash, no fogginess.”


Adrafinil actually gets converted into Modafinil when it reaches your liver. This is where alarm bells ring most loudly with relation to potential problems that may occur. So, now the basics have been traversed, let us consider Adrafinil side effects in full.


Firstly: Modafinil Side Effects


I will begin by considering the effects of Modafinil. This is vital in understanding Adrafinil side effects afterwards. Modafinil is the active metabolite from Adrafinil consumption. N.W Milgram’s explanation below is very helpful in understanding the relationship between the two stimulants:


Adrafinil has two metabolites, modafinil and CRL 40476. Little is known about CRL 40476. Modafinil, on the other hand, has been much more extensively studied, and the production of modafinil is likely to account for at least part of the effects of adrafinil. Thus, adrafinil has very similar pharmacological effects to modafinil. Moreover, the behavioral effects of adrafinil are more closely tied to the pharmacokinetics of its metabolite modafinil.


So, there we have it. Concentrated amounts of Modafinil are generated in the liver when Adrafinil reaches that region after ingestion. This is why considering the side effects of Modafinil are equally important to consider: not only does Modafinil have much more literature readily available for study, but it is also a component within Adrafinil itself.



adrafinil side effects


So, with it being Adrafinil’s closest relative, it is worth us firstly considering Modafinil side effects. How do they compare?


Modafinil’s most commonly recorded side effect is a headache, noted in more than 1 in 10 persons. Less common, found in 1 in 100, are the following (


  • abnormal laboratory test results
  • anxiety or worsening of anxiety
  • blurred vision
  • chest pain
  • confusion
  • constipation
  • depression
  • diarrhoea
  • difficulty sleeping
  • dry mouth
  • faster heart rate
  • feeling dizzy
  • feeling nervous
  • indigestion
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • palpitations
  • paraesthesiae
  • sleepiness
  • stomach pain
  • unusual thoughts
  • vasodilatation
  • weakness


That is a lot! Unsurprisingly, Modafinil side effects are discussed in abundance around the internet. Reddit users seem to be in agreement on the negative Modafinil side effects. One reviewer called adhd_patient stated:


“This is the best discussion forum I’ve found about Moda side effects. I started taking 200mg for ADHD few days ago and I’m experiencing most of the side effects mentioned here: 

mild headache, drowsiness, chest pain, higher heart beat and spike in blood pressure (I’m on 3 BP meds already), lack of creativity and generally slower in thinking, also lower manual precision (like chopping stuff or kitchen work), less emotional in social interactions and less affectionate toward loved ones.”


Other users, like WizardryAwaits, take equally hard stances against Modafinil side effects:


“For me the following negative side effects are very noticeable for me after taking modafinil:

  • Extreme insomnia. Even if I take half a pill (100mg) at 7:30am, by 3am the next night I will still unable to sleep, even if I feel tired, and even if I have not slept for 48 hours. It’s like a switch has been flicked in my brain which disabled my ability to fall asleep. The sleep disruption even lasts for days for me. After taking it once, only three days later do I get a good night’s sleep.
  • Drastically increased effects from caffeine. My caffeine tolerance disappears completely, and the negative effects from caffeine become much more pronounced. After a single cup of coffee I was:
  • Euphoric
  • Very anxious/nervous
  • Experiencing shaking/tremors of the hands and difficulty of fine motor control
  • Having heart palpitations and heart pain
  • Dry mouth
  • Having to pee very frequently
  • Had a panic attack”


On Longe City, user 2/1_kiwi, was equally disappointed with Modafinil side effects:


“My results with modafinil were poor, I just got headaches, felt mentally foggy and then developed insomnia. Wasn’t the wonder drug I was hoping at all.”


Adrafinil side effects


Does the same apply to Adrafinil? Well, notes that the most common Adrafinil side effects are:


• Stomach pains
• Nausea
• Dizziness
• Headaches


adrafinil liver toxicity


If you require a coffee, without fail, every morning, then you’d be forgiven for thinking immediately of caffeine in relation to Adrafinil side effects. If you’re unfamiliar (maybe you’re prefer a tea), then the following are what you may experience if you have withdrawals from caffeine:


• Drowsiness
• Headaches
• Irritability
• Nausea
• Vomitting


A little perspective on Adrafinil side effects


This is some indication of how Adrafinil should not be feared. Its potential side effects are very similar to those of caffeine: a drug used without trepidation by millions, and on a daily basis. Though the thought of unwanted side effects might seem scary; let us add a little perspective. When you stand at your kitchen work-top in the morning, do you stop and think: wait, wait, wait. What if I take one sip of this coffee and have crippling pains and the fear of dying for the rest of the day? When you stand in a supermarket, do you look at the array of coffee brands, thinking to yourself: “these will all do something very bad to my body. I’m stepping away immediately”? I am of course exaggerating my point here, and it is obviously very important to be wary of the drugs you ingest and to what extent they might affect you. After all, everyone has different bodily sensitivity levels. But, as with anything, things are created, tested and approved for the majority. This ultimately and always leaves a small minority displeased.  But, at the same time, this means that the possible side effects are only seen within that very minority. Others able to use Adrafinil safely, happily and daily to achieve the results they desire for their own bodies – without fear of what could happen in very rare scenarios.


Like caffeine, Adrafinil has energising effects, but with less harmful bodily repercussions than is typical for any other stimulant. Overall, the supplement is not known for causing side effects like increased blood pressure or heart problems. As with the misuse of any substance, though, these things can occur – especially for those with pre-existing conditions. Precautions must therefore be taken to avoid such occurrences. The first simple step to ensure safety is following the usage guidelines. A savvy approach wields the desired results.

Adrafinil and the liver


It is in the liver that Adrafinil is converted to Modafinil. This is where the most pertinent Adrafinil side effects might crop up.


adrafinil powder liver


The conversion process between Adrafinil and Modafinil essentially pertains to the former breaking down into the latter as a compound. The process puts strain on the liver and raises the levels of key enzymes in that region. A continual build-up of these enzymes may leaves lasting damage upon the liver. It is typically after six months of daily use that symptoms make themselves apparent. Different people will, however, have different sensitivity levels.


One Longe City user, ModaMinds, consolidates the necessity of taking logical approaches to the use of both Adrafinil and Modafinil to minimise the side effects. This certainly indicates the potential health risks of both drugs, showing that Modafinil should be taken no less cautiously than Adrafinil:


“…if you’re taking adrafinil five days a week, then yes there is concern for liver damage down the road. You are on a lower dosage than usual for adrafinil, but as with any med that is taken daily (or most days in a week), it is conceivable that your liver will be affected, especially when mixed with alcohol. If you switched to modafinil/armodafinil, the effects would be slowed, but if still dosing five days per week, I would still be concerned about long-term consequences.”


As with most drugs, if the recommended dosage is adhered to, Adrafinil is considered safe for healthy users. Of course, it should not be taken over a long-term period. Cycling your use will definitely help the liver clear itself and regenerate its correct levels of enzymes.


Cycling Adrafinil means that, for example, if taken daily for two weeks, then two weeks should be taken off ( Approaching your use in this kind of way also works at keeping tolerance of the drug down… what a positive if you want to continue reaping the benefits! After all, moderation and awareness is the key to good health.


Adrafinil liver problems


The most notable Adrafinil side effects occur after sustained use of the drug. Such problems are located primarily in the liver and pertain to the development of harmful enzymes. These, as briefly discussed above, can build up within the liver, raising the amount to levels deemed unhealthy. The saying goes that too much of anything is not good thing – this is certainly applicable both to the supplement of Adrafinil on a permanent basis and to the amount of enzymes in the liver.


Adrafinil liver enzymes

So, what exactly are enzymes? They exist in living organisms and are, essentially, catalysts for specific biochemical reactions within the body.  At the beginning of a reaction process, there exist molecules called ‘substrates’. The enzyme converts these into ‘products’. All metabolic processes in cells require enzymes to, put simply, react within the body at rates fast enough to sustain life. I know, this does all sound quite school-textbook Science, but it is nevertheless important info to know when considering Adrafinil. Why? Because, remember, the sustained use of Adrafinil affects the level of liver enzymes.


adrafinil liver enzyme


Now, various reports around the web suggest that the enzyme involved in metabolising Modafinil once Adrafinil reaches the liver is Cytochrome p-450 (refer to Andrew Parkin’s study if you fancy a complete scientific follow-up). Cytochrome p-450 (often abbreviated “CYP”) is a class of enzymes that is involved in the metabolism of many medications and is located primarily in the liver (Straight Healthcare).


In fact, Straight Healthcare provides much succinct information in relation to enzymes in the liver:


  • When CYP inducers or inhibitors are taken with other medications that are metabolized by the same enzyme, they can alter the metabolism of that medication
  • Certain chemicals and foods (ex. tobacco smoke and grapefruit juice) may also act as CYP inducers and inhibitors
  • Drugs may be metabolized by a CYP enzyme and also inhibit or induce the enzyme at the same time
  • Inducers and inhibitors can be subdivided into strong, moderate, or weak based on how much of an effect they have on the enzyme


There is further discussion on the drug interaction with relation to liver enzymes and their metabolism of said drugs. This just screams relevancy to our topic of Adrafinil side effects in the liver…




  • Information on drug interactions can be difficult to assimilate
  • Certain drug interactions and metabolic pathways are well-documented, while many are not


adrafinil drug interactions


Factors that can make drug interactions challenging include the following:


New drugs

  • When a new drug is being developed, the FDA requires that it be tested for drug interactions with a small number of medications that are known to have significant interactions
  • Obviously, there is no way to test a medication in every possible drug combination that may occur. This means most drugs come to market with incomplete drug interaction profiles
  • After a medication is prescribed to a large number of people, other drug interactions are inevitably discovered”


What this reiterates is the necessity of realising that Adrafinil has been tested to its full potential, and on the majority. Any side effects that are possibly experienced after ingestion are therefore voiced by the minorities, and should not be cause for unwarranted fear within a new user who, it is highly probable, will fit in the ‘majority’ category.


Adrafinil liver failure


In the worst case scenario, a build-up of liver enzymes can lead to failure of the organ. Liver failure occurs when large parts of the liver are damaged beyond repair, meaning the liver itself can no longer function. It is a life-threatening condition necessitating immediate medical attention, but, most often, liver failure occurs over many years and at a gradual pace. But, do not fear; the typical causes of liver failure are long-standing or inherited conditions such as (info sourced from


·      Hepatitis B

·      Hepatitis C

·      Long term alcohol consumption

·      Cirrhosis

·      Hemochromatosis (an inherited disorder that causes the body to absorb and store too much iron)

·      Malnutrition


adrafinil liver failure


Adrafinil certainly does not appear in nasty lists like the above! To avoid concerns, Adrafinil users should follow our Adrafinil dosage guide: stating 600mg -1200mg of Adrafinil three times a week for a maximum of five months.  While infrequent use is certainly not said to cause liver failure, further ways of mitigating potential Adrafinil side effects would be to not taken it in conjunction with drugs shown to have similar effects on liver enzymes.

Adrafinil liver test


If concerns do occupy you, there are various methods of addressing worries. Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) involve blood tests that provide useful information for a patient about their liver. Biochemical tests are indeed helpful in the evaluation and management of liver problems. They can detect the presence of disease, distinguish between different types of disorders and can even predict the extent of existing damage. These tests are routinely undertaken to ensure that any medication being used is not damaging the liver. Perfect, then, if you’re beginning to worry about potential Adrafinil side effects in this region of the body.


However, there are certainly other precautions that can be taken to prevent the necessity of an LFT. This is especially reassuring if blood tests don’t appeal to you!


blood test adrafinil


To prevent or mitigate Adrafinil side effects in the liver, you may begin by seeking advice from your doctor.  As with starting any new health procedure, it is important to know all the facts beforehand – especially if you suffer from other medical conditions. You could be taking other supplements or drugs, you might be pregnant (definitely don’t take Adrfinil if you’re expecting a baby!). Clearly these kinds of issues are worth prioritising when researching or contemplating using Adrafinil.


If Adrafinil is your chosen drug, then its recommended dosage should become your go-to piece of information. It is recommended on that between 150mg to 300mg should be taken daily and in the morning. Adrafinil is not recommended for long term use, though, and taking a break from it every now and again is advisable. Although sites like are helpful, it is strongly recommended that you adhere to the Adrafinil manufactureres insert for guidance. 


Adrafinil Liver & Milk Thistle?


adrafinil milk thistle

During these breaks, taking milk thistle works as a great defence against the appearance of any unwanted Adrafinil side effects. Milk thistle is a flowering herb related to the daisy family and is sometimes used as a natural remedy for problems such as jaundice, cirrhosis, gallbladder disorders and hepatitis. Some claim that it also benefits the heart by lowering cholesterol levels… another win!  Milk thistle can be taken orally in supplements or in tea and can be combined with other herbs. It restores liver health by detoxifying the organ and, if properly cycled with Adrafinil use, should evidence benefits whilst minimising the appearance of undesired side effects. Reddit user ace_trees certainly agrees that overall precautions are logical when taking Adrafinil:


“… some livers can handle years of alcoholism, meth, coke, and heroin, others develop liver damage after the occasional binge drinking in college. It really depends. If you are worried, get liver enzyme tests done. Further, not drinking soda and staying hydrated will not mitigate possible liver damage. That being said, adrafinil only on weekdays will most likely not give you liver damage, especially if you keep the doses low (300-400mg). If you are worried, supplement with milk thistle or something helps with liver health and take occasional days off.”


Adrafinil effect on liver – Summary


Whilst it may be true that the conversion of Adrafinil to Modafinil occurs in the liver specifically, it is mostly anecdotal evidence that suggests problems in this organ arise thereafter.


Having read – and, of course, I invite you to do this as well! –  a variety of user posts on the  relationship between Modafinil/Adrafinil/liver, there is, simply, a mixed bag of results. Some threads contain, as with this post from Disi on Longe City, tentative suggestions that their liver has been affected after using one of the stimulants:


“I have been reading a lot of good comments on modafinil. I used to take it for few days(maybe more than week) but as I recall I had pains in my stomach(back of…liver?)”


Meanwhile, other posts simply agree that the only way to reassure yourself about potential liver damage is to have regular check-ups. Blood tests, liver enzyme tests… they are all readily available, but should not be absolutely necessary if the recommended directs of use are adhered to! Reddit user mlhill definitely provides food for thought:


“The thing is, there are a lot of things that raise liver enzymes when they are metabolized. For example Codeine gets metabolized into morphine, codeine itself is not an effective pain killer. Even Paracetamol/APAP will raise your liver enzymes in safe therapeutic dose level.”


It is important, then, to take in all of the advice provided above. As with anything, side effects can be lessened if the label on the bottle is read and if prior-product-knowledge is as strong as it can be. There are many, many further articles on the internet that provide equal amounts of good, helpful information on Adrafinil as a supplement in its entirety.

Adrafinil side effects reddit


So, what of all of this? Well, it is certain that Adrafinil side effects should be thoroughly explored prior to the purchase of the drug. As with any new product, research is vital. That goes for legitimacy of the product (remember the COA!), the comparisons to Modafinil side effects, the recommended dosage information and, of course, precautions to be taken once the drug is used (Milk thistle!)


It is very helpful to stand back and apply a bit of perspective when considering Adrafinil side effects. It is a drug used by thousands and the potential risks are generally not seen with low, short doses – which is how the drug is advised to be taken. The excellent results that can be gained from using Adrafinil definitely outweigh thoughts of what might happen if misused.


Remember, as with any drug that can be taken by thousands, there will always be negative reviews. 95% of Adrafinil users reap the great benefits of the supplement in comparison to the small percentages that are opt-out.


As with any drug used daily and by many – from paracetamol to caffeine – the rise of any concerns in relation can easily be addressed. This Reddit user (Alza_36) quite succinctly sums up the key issues to be considered before Adrafinil is ingested:



• Do research. Examine other posts addressing Modafinil and Adrafinil before using, and be sure it is right for you before you being dosing.

• You should take no more than 50mg on your first dose. You may be allergic, or you may be affected by this drug unusually. If you worry about the effectiveness of a dose that small, take into consideration that I had a great experience with it at only 50mg.

• Do not combine this drug with any other psychoactive drug until you know its full potential and how it affects you.

  • If you plan on prolonged use of Adrafinil, I would advise you to seek your doctor for Liver Enzyme Blood Tests once a month after 3 months of use. This drug is hard on your liver, so you should also avoid Aspirin, Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, Alcohol, or any other drug which may damage your liver.”


Adrafinil odour

Here is a helpful tip from one of our readers


I am a regular user of Adrafinil since March 2015. I find that like many others, Adrafinil causes a lingering sulphuric odor in my pee, sweat and (sometimes) breath. Recently I have found that adding a couple of drops of clove oil to my body and hair cream will neutralize the odor from my sweat, and a couple of drops in my morning tea will neutralize the odor in my pee and on my breath. The clove oil I use is the dental type you can get at any pharmacy for about £2 or £3 a vial. I will also drink lots of water throughout the day. I am still working on a solution for my wind but I will figure that one out with my diet.



Buy Adrafinil Online: 2016 COMPLETE buyer’s guide


Is Adrafinil available on Prescription?


Adrafinil is best known under the brand name ‘Olmifon’, or ‘CRL-40028’. Because it works as a stimulant, physicians in some countries prescribe the drug for people who need help staying awake. Its ability to prevent drowsiness could make it very useful for people who struggle with tiredness, for example, those who work night shifts or suffer from narcolepsy.


adrafinil prescription

Once ingested, Adrafinil is metabolised in the liver to Modafinil. Adrafinil is a ‘prodrug’; this means that it should have the same effect as Modafinil once consumed, but that these effects may be delayed as Adrafinil requires time to be metabolised in the body. Modafinil is also available as a generic version in its own right. Depending on your country of residence, Adrafinil and the aforementioned sister drug may or may not be available on prescription.


Whilst Modafinil is available via prescription only in the United States and the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, Adrafinil remains unregulated. This means that the substance is not regulated by law, and so can be purchased without a prescription. The unregulated status of Adrafinil does, however, mean that the substance has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and so in many countries the substance is sold by a variety of companies, each of which may be offering a slightly different product.  


In Australia on the other hand, both Modafinil (as Modvigil) and Adrafinil are only available by prescription. The differences in availability in different countries will be discussed in more detail in the sections below.

Adrafinil Prices and Deals


Company               Country Based World-wide Shipping Powder/ capsules Prices and Deals
Absorb Health USA Yes Capsules


30 caps: $32.49, 70 caps: $69.99, 100 caps: $94.99, 150 caps: $119.99
Adrafinil Depot USA No Capsules (300mg) 30 caps: $32.95, 60 caps: $59.95, 90 caps: $87.95
Anonymous Pharm India Yes Capsules (300mg) 60 caps: $48.00, 90 caps: $72.00, 120 caps: $96.00, 180 caps: $144.00, 360 caps: $288.00
Antiaging Systems UK Yes Capsules (300mg) 40 caps: $49.99
Awake Brain USA Yes Capsules (300mg) 10 caps: $14.99, 40 caps: $49.99, 120 caps: $139.99
Biogenesis South Africa Not to South Africa or Europe Capsules (300mg) 40 caps: $49.99
Cerebral Health USA Yes Powder 50g: $74.95, 100g: $139.95
Ceretropic USA Yes Powder 5g: $14.99, 15g: $36.99, 30g: $66.99
Focus Powders USA No – USA and Canada only Powder 1g: $7.49, 5g: $14.99, 10g: $23.99, 25g: $49.99, 50g: $79.99, 100g: $149.99


New Mind USA Yes Powder 5g: $13.88, 15g: $39.57, 50g: $124.90
New Star Nootropics USA Yes Powder 5g: $16.95, 10g: $31.50, 20g: $49.00
Nootropics City USA Unknown Capsules (300mg) 90 caps: $79.99. Sample pack 20 caps: $21.99 UK Yes Powder 10g: £29.99, 20g: £55.99, 40g: £99.99
Peak Nootropics USA Yes Powder 10g: $23.99, 20g: $49.99, 50g: $74.99, 100g: $139.99
Powder City USA Only in bulk Powder 5g: $13.87, 10g: $22.87, 25g: $47.35, 50g: $74.95
Quality Health Inc. UK Yes Capsules (300mg) Sold in 40 capsules. Price unknown – product temporarily unavailable at time of writing
SMB Nutrition USA No Capsules (300mg) 30 caps: $28.95, 60 caps: $54.95, 90 caps: $77.95
Smart Drugs for College USA Yes Capsules (300mg) 90 caps: $79.99
Smart Drugs for Thought USA No – USA and Canada only Capsules (300mg) 30 caps: $32.48, 60 caps: $59.91, 90 caps: $78.71, 120 caps: $102.47
Thought Foods UK Yes Capsules (300mg) 60 caps: £42.64

Where to Buy Adrafinil


In countries where Adrafinil is not available on prescription, the substance is usually legal if purchased for personal use in small quantities. Adrafinil is more commonly purchased than Modafinil because, despite Modafinil sometimes being the preferred choice of the two, Adrafinil is generally easier to get hold of. As mentioned previously, most countries require a prescription for the use of Modafinil, but many don’t for Adrafinil.


buy adrafinil powder

Adrafinil is often sold by private companies as a ‘smart drug’, with a target audience of students, or anyone requiring a mental boost. The substance is thought to help to keep people awake and focused. Whilst it does not directly improve cognition or memory, it is often purported to achieve these results indirectly by improving focus and concentration, and reducing tiredness.

Since this use is not for the treatment of a medical condition, it would not usually be possible to get a prescription of Adrafinil (where available) unless you suffer from a sleep-related condition, such as narcolepsy. As such, those who want to take the substance for this purpose have to look elsewhere and purchase the product from a private retailer.


If you are sure that it is legal to buy Adrafinil in your country, and you have done your research and understand the dosage and potential side effects associated with the substance, then you have several options regarding where to purchase the substance. Unfortunately, it is not usually possible to find Adrafinil on the shelves of high street stores, or on the websites of well-known health retailers. This is because Adrafinil is unregulated, and stores often refrain from selling products that have not been approved by the FDA or equivalent service. However, this is simply a preference of that particular store, and not a legal requirement.  


Instead, you will likely have to venture into the selection of lesser-known online supplement stores. Adrafinil may or may not be legally sold in your country of residence; in some countries where the substance cannot be legally sold however, it is legal to purchase a small amount from an international company.


Olmifon, as sold by Cephalon, was the only available branded Adrafinil product. This product was however purportedly discontinued in 2011 after the equivalent of the FDA in France reported adverse side effects, and stated that the benefits of Adrafinil do not outweigh the risks.


How to Buy Adrafinil Online


Purchasing a supplement from an online retailer can be a daunting task, and finding a reliable retailer may not be as simple as it first seems. It is extremely important that you research the retailer and manufacturer thoroughly before transferring any money and buying Adrafinil from them. It is integral that you take steps to ensure that the product is safe.

where to buy adrafinil

It is never recommended that you purchase supplements from online marketplaces such as eBay. This is for the simple reason that eBay sales are unregulated, and often very basic small time businesses (or individuals) are able to start selling a product. A seller could send you a fake product, or even an opened or dangerous substance rather than the Adrafinil that you thought you were ordering. You have very little protection when purchasing from such websites and so it should be avoided.

One user on Reddit (LegoOctopus) mentions the difficulties with getting a genuine Adrafinil product on Ebay since Cephalon stopped making Olmifon:

“Have you actually been able to find authentic adrafinil? Every supplier I’ve bought it from since it was discontinued sent me a flavorless, water insoluble white powder that was definitely not adrafinil (and was quite possibly corn starch)”

Things to check when considering an online retailer:

  • Does the company sell any other products?
  • Does the company have plenty of positive independent customer reviews?
  • Is it easy to find contact details for the company?
  • Does the website provide advice regarding dosage, side effects and people who should not take Adrafinil?
  • Does the retailer reveal details of the actual manufacturer of the product?
  • Is it possible to view a Certificate of Authenticity (COA) for the product?

If the answer is ‘no’ to one or more of the above questions, then be cautious of the retailer. The above list is not a definitive guide, but offers some useful guidance when choosing a retailer. It may also be true that some retailers do not fulfill the questions above, but still have quality products and services.

Companies should always be transparent in terms of the products they sell and where they are made. It should also be very easy to contact the company in the case of a problem. In terms of customer reviews, remember that those provided on product websites are not always reliable. In order to find independent customer reviews, you should search for reviews of the company in a search engine, such as Google. This way you should be able to find independent and most importantly, unbiased, customer reviews of the company and of the product. Some retailers offer their products on Amazon, which offers a great review system for you to analyse.

adrafinil review

The larger the company and the more products they sell, the easier it should be to find information and reviews about the company. As such, larger companies are often deemed more reliable. Any retailers selling Adrafinil in a country where it is unregulated should provide a disclaimer stating that the product is, for example, not designed to treat or cure any illness. They should also provide full details of the Adrafinil being sold, including dosage and any potential side effects.

adrafinil COA

To ensure that a product is genuine and safe, you should view a certificate of authenticity. If this is not available immediately on the web page, then you can contact the company and ask to view one. The Certificate of Authenticity (COA) is usually provided by a third party laboratory that checks the batch for its safety (e.g. Colmaric Analytics), and confirms that the product is what it says on the label. Often, unscrupulous vendors may only offer a COA from their Chinese manufacturer, which is not always a sign of a pure product.

Remember that price should not always be the main factor when purchasing Adrafinil. Safety should be ranked much higher. After all, there would simply be no point in purchasing a cheap product that was ‘fake’ and thus did not have the desired effects. It is better to research different products and companies in detail before making your decision.

Ways to Spot Fake Adrafinil

It can be very difficult to know whether or not the product you receive is genuine, pure Adrafinil. This issue is made worse by the fact that not everybody will react in the same way to Adrafinil; as such, just because you do not notice the effects that the substance should have, does not necessarily mean that it is not Adrafinil.

Unsurprisingly, there are some ‘fake’ Adrafinil products available, particularly since the substance has been discontinued by Cephalon and so is now only sold by a number of lesser-known online retailers. Whilst some products may be a different substance entirely, others may be ‘bulked out’ with other, non-active substances.

fake adrafinil

In a discussion on Reddit, users have written that 1g of Adrafinil should generally dissolve in 1 litre of nearly boiling water because pure Adrafinil is water-soluble.

Interestingly, a user on LongeCity has also stated that:

“Adrafinil should react the same as amphetamine on a Marquis reagent test, that is orange->brown. Kits are available on amazon.”

Another way to spot a fake Adrafinil product is supposedly by the taste. If the substance is tasteless, or does not really taste of much, then users of LongeCity have stated that it is likely to be ‘fake’. This is because Adrafinil has a very strong, bitter, chemical taste. It is also reported to make your urine smell strongly Sulfuric.

Three easiest ways to spot fake Adrafinil (based on user experiences):

  • Cloudy when 1g Adrafinil is dissolved in 1 litre of hot water
  • Product does not have a distinctive smell
  • Urine does not smell any different to usual

Modafinil on the other hand is not usually reported as having a strong smell. There are warnings, particularly for Modafinil, regarding fake products being sold from India. This user on Reddit has written about a strange experience, wherein the company sent a batch of the product for free, asking for payment later. The customer received an unknown brand of Modafinil that was not mentioned on the website, and does not seem to be recognised by other users in the forum discussion.

fake modafinil

One member describes this experience as a ‘confidence scam’:

“It’s a confidence scam. Once someone has done you “a favour,” you perceive yourself as being in their debt. You’ll buy the expected quantity, as it only seems fair. You won’t complain that it’s crap, because you received some for “free” at the outset. You’re less likely to complain about what you get for free.”

How to Buy Adrafinil Near You

Adrafinil is available from online retailers all over the world, though it is very rare to find the product in high-street stores. The substance is popular, and there are a lot of discussions online regarding the best places to purchase Adrafinil, particularly after the discontinuation of Olmifon in France. In some countries, it is illegal for the substance to be sold in the country, but legal for a person to import a small amount from another country for personal use. Generally speaking, it is probably easiest to purchase from a company based in your own country if this is a legal and viable option.

Adrafinil UK

It is very difficult to determine what is and isn’t allowed in the field of supplements and nootropic drugs in the UK. Nevertheless, it is understood that Adrafinil is not controlled in the UK; this means that it cannot be given by a doctor on prescription, but also that it has not been approved by the MHRA. It is legal to buy a small amount (supposedly enough for up to 3 months) of the substance from retailers for personal use. It is not, however, allowed to be sold in the UK, unless as a research chemical.

adrafinil uk

There are however, a few popular vendors that ship to the UK. Users from the UK on forums such as this one have recommended ‘’ and ‘Pharmacygeoff’, who ship from Singapore, for Modafinil. A user of Yahoo Answers recommended for Adrafinil, stating that this is the company that used to be the top seller on Amazon, before Amazon prohibited the sale of Adrafinil.

Adrafinil USA

As is the case in the UK, Adrafinil is not regulated in the USA. It cannot be obtained via prescription, and has not been approved by the FDA. However, some retailers do still sell Adrafinil as a supplement with domestic US dispatch.

buy adrafinil us

There is some debate over the products sold by Smart Drugs for Thought, with some people on this thread stating that their Adrafinil has no effect, and others stating that it is completely genuine. Others on the same thread recommended as a vendor. medsforbitcoin,, mymodafinil, and thepharmacyexpress were all recommended as well-known vendors on a thread on Reddit.

Adrafinil Australia


Unlike the regulations in the UK and the US, Adrafinil is only available on prescription in Australia. Users of a BlueLight forum state that it belongs to Schedule 4 Prescription Medicine in Australia. It is unclear whether or not it is legal to buy small quantities of Adrafinil online and have it delivered to Australia for personal use, as is the case in the UK and US. A number of online retailers do ship to Australia, however, Australian customs are notoriously strict.

buy adrafinil australia

Many companies ship worldwide, including to Australia. With one of the most trusted being absorb health.


Adrafinil Canada

Health Canada has not approved Adrafinil, and it does not have a Drug Identification Number. In common with the other countries mentioned here, there does not seem to be any laws against importing small amounts of Adrafinil from other countries for personal use. Whilst it is not legal to buy Adrafinil from retailers within Canada, a number of vendors internationally will ship to Canada.

buy adrafinil canada

One Adrafinil product is actually available from the Canadian Amazon, sold via the aforementioned Absorb Health. recommends Canadian buyers purchase Adrafinil from reliable US stores, such as Peak Nootropics. Individuals on this Reddit thread argue that it can be difficult to get Adrafinil products past Canadian customs, and recommend buying Adrafinil from a US-based company, rather than places such as India (e.g. medsforbitcoin). One user in particular recommends the vendor “Absorb health”. Awakebrain is another US-based vendor.

Do you Buy Adrafinil Powder or Adrafinil Capsules?

adrafinil capsules

Adrafinil is available in both powder and capsule form. Powdered Adrafinil is a very popular form, but can apparently be more difficult to source than Adrafinil capsules. The powder form can be dissolved into hot water, or compressed into tablets (with a little more difficulty). A review on Nootropics states that you should not consume more than 300mg of Adrafinil per capsule, and that new users should begin with a dosage of around 100mg to determine tolerance. As the person gets used to the substance, they may wish to increase the dosage gradually. It is also recommended that you consume Adrafinil in cycles, taking regular breaks. This should prolong the effects, as people can build up a tolerance to the substance.

Some users prefer not to dissolve Adrafinil powder in water to consume it due to an unpleasant taste, though the strength of this taste may depend on the precise product. Instead, people may wish to purchase capsules, or cap the powder themselves. This can be done using a ‘pill capping device’ that can be purchased on websites such as Amazon, making the substance easier to carry around and consume.

Which method people opt for depends on a number of factors. For example, some people find it difficult to swallow pills and so may prefer to dissolve the powder in to a drink. Others opt to cap their own pills, but some users find this process fiddly and time consuming, such as this user on LongeCity:

“I really dislike capping my own supplements even though I have 1000 vcaps and a 100 slot acrylic manual filler from China. It’s just messy and I have more money than time.”

One other reason people choose powder is because it may be difficult to determine precisely how much of the substance is present in capsules, which may be ‘bulked out’ or filled with other substances. That being said, the same can be experienced with the powder form, which can have other inactive substances added, in order to make it look like a greater quantity.

Those who opt for Adrafinil powder need to be able to accurately measure dosage themselves. In order to do this, they must own very accurate scales. Using scales rather than scoops is recommended, as the density of Adrafinil powder may vary depending on the batch. The cost of the product can rise significantly if you need to add on the cost of scales and a capping device, though these would be one-off purchases.


Piracetam Overview – Studies, Dosage Reviews

What is Piracetam?


Piracetam is a dietary supplement and cognitive enhancer believed to improve memory and intelligence. Piracetam increases information flow between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. Many believe Piracetam to be a viable treatment option for alcoholism, senile dementia, dyslexia, stroke, and vertigo.


Proponents of piracetam claim the nootropic will:


·       Augment your mental quickness.

·       Increase the fluidity of your conversations. Increase your vernacular. Decrease the amount of times a word is on the “tip of your tongue”.

·       Access your creative mind.

·       Intensify your motivation.

·       Improve your sleep quality.

·       Boost your long and short-term memory recall.

·       Sharpen your sensory abilities. 

·       Increase your energy levels. 

·       Accentuate your dreams.  


What is the best Piracetam dosage?


Piracetam can be purchased as a powder or in capsule form. The capsules typically come with predefined doses of 400-800mg per pill. The recommended daily dose for nootropil is anywhere from 500mg – 5000mg per day. This piracetam dosage is often split between two or three daily ingestions.


Many people recommend ‘loading’ or establishing an ‘attack dose’ for the first few days of use. This dose period is to acclimate the body to Piracetam and feel its effects sooner. The recommended attack dose is 4000mg-8000mg.


Many people combine Piracetam with Choline to deter ‘brain-fog’ or headaches. These supplements affect everyone slightly differently and it is recommended you find the best solution for you. The most quoted Piracetam to Choline ratio is 2:1. For example if you take 1000mg than you should take 500mg of Choline.


What are the side effects of Piracatam?


There are little known side effects associated with nootropil, yet some do exist. Readers are reminded to proceed with caution and intelligence if they are to embark on Piracetam experimentation. Read studies and follow sources.


Side effects of Piracetam may include:


·       An increase in anxiety or nervousness.

·       Alteration of sleep patterns (drowsiness or sleeplessness).

·       Stomache aches

·       Headaches (Piracetam headaches are typically treated by supplementing with Choline)

·       Irritability

·       Mood swings


How does Piracetam work?


Piracetam stimulates the central nervous system with physical manifestations similar to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. What this means is it will act to neutralize the intensity and duration of the effects of the enzyme which deactuates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Piracetam is a derivative of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) referred to as 2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide.


History / Studies of Piracetam


Piracetam kickstarted the nootropics craze since in the late 1960′s with its inception by a team of researchers in UCB Laboratories in Belgium. As the forefather of nootropics, Piracetam is also referred to by the name nootropil.



Modafinil Overview – Dosage, Side Effects, Research & More

What is Modafinil?


Modafinil (or provigil) is a drug originally intended for narcolepsy sufferers. Nootropic users have turned to modafinil as it is known to improve:


  • ability to focus in duration and intensity
  • analytic capabilities
  • memory recall and rentention
  • mood and well-being


Sports and fitness enthusiasts are also keen on modafinil supplementation. Provigil provides very capable increases in both aerobic and anaerobic performance enhancement. In one study Modafinil was found to drastically decrease fatigue levels.

Provigil is also used for treatment of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), depression, bi-polar disorder (the depression), cocaine dependence, and opiate dependence. Modafinil is only available in the United States via media prescription.


How does Modafinil work?


Modafinil intensifies specific neurotransmitters, most notably dopamine. Additionally, provigil affects histamine agonists, increasing them to keep high levels of wakefulness. Imagine taking an anti-histamine. They make you feel drowsy and out of focus. Modafinil works in the opposite way.


Side effects of Modafinil


Asparagus has a reputation for altering the smell and possibly color of one’s urine. Provigil has a similar effect. Studies have been inconclusive in determining the possibility of provigil addiction. However, logic would dictate a supplement affecting dopamine centers involves a possibility of habit forming behavior. Modafinil is a stimulant with positive cognitive and mood effects, and as such the possibility for abuse for must exist, yet caffeine may be similarly addictive.


Other side effects of Modafinil include:


  • increased sweats
  • tremors
  • pain in the back
  • headache
  • nausea
  • dry mouth or cotton mouth
  • anxiety
  • trouble sleeping

Modafinil Dosage


Evidence suggests 600mg is the suggested daily maximum dosage of provigil. Results vary and users are encouraged to find optimal dosage and dosage times. Most people take 100 – 200 mg once or twice daily. Be cognizant not to over supplement with Modafinil as there may be toxicity concerns.

You may also develop a tolerance to Modafinil over time so it is wise to cycle your usage.


Modafinil Research


Please review the following research papers for more information on provigil, effects, dosages, and general information.


What is Aniracetam – Mechanism of Action, Dosage & Research

What is Aniracetam?


Aniracetam (also known as Sarpol, Synaptine Elite, Ampapet, and Memodrin) is a nutritional supplement commonly referred to as a nootropic. Aniracetam is appreciably more potent than Piracetam, but has the same effects including improved memory, cognition, and concentration.


Advocates of Aniracetam purport the nootropic will:


  • Enhance Memory
  • Improve Cognition
  • Increase in Awareness
  • Mitigate Emotion
  • Better Confidence
  • Visual Process
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Reduction of Social Phobia


What is the best Aniracetam dosage?


Aniracetam, as with most nootropics, affects individuals differently. The recommended daily dose is anywhere from 750mg-4000mg per day. This intake should be taken one to four times daily. Many first time users begin by taking four daily doses of 750mg. The density of aniracetam is 1.24 g/cm3 , which is pretty close to cocaine, caffeine , and piracetam.


Aniracetam should be taken with a choline supplement lest you find yourself in a haze of drowsiness.


Users of Aniracetam generally report prime effectiveness lasting 2 hours from initial ingestion. Subtle cognitive effects persist for approximately 2-4 hours afterwards.


How does Aniracetam work?


Memodrin provides effects by modulating receptors of Serotonin, Dopamine, and possibly GABA. Aniracetam increases communication between brain hemispheres and affects NDMA and AMPA receptors, both integral in memory creation and recall.


While Aniracetam works similarly to others in the racetam family., it is difficult to quantify the strengths of the various racetam nootopics. While many consider Aniracetam the “strongest” of the family, this may be due to increased levels of potent activity at necessary receptor points. This causes Aniracetam to feel less “subtle” than other nootropics like Piracetam.


Studies are inconclusive on the affects of Aniracetam and acetylcholine production. Some tests provide positive results and show increases in the neurotransmitter. However, other tests show no change in acetylcholine. As such Aniracetam should be taken in conjunction with choline. Acetylcholine has been proven to increase focus and general cognition.


History / Studies of Aniracetam


Two known studies have shown positive aniracetam effects cognitive aptitude in healthy test subjects:



Additional studies can be found here:



An Introduction to Nootropics


What are Nootropics?


Nootropics are often referred to as “smart drugs”, “cognitive enhancers”, or “mental enhancers”. Nootropic users report long levels of intense focus, increased memory retention, increased vocabulary, increased mental fluidity and enhancement of mood. Nootropics can be compared to brain steroids, except completely legal and safe.


Cognitive function is influenced by the neurotransmitters in our brain and the blood flow required to bring compulsory levels of oxygen. A neurotransmitter is a chemical which broadcasts information to cells from neurons. This is a process of correspondence between brain neurons and cells found throughout the body.


As people grow older, or have deficiencies in their diets, our brains find difficulty fulfilling optimal levels of essential neurotransmitters.


Most nootropics affect the following neurotransmitters:


·       Dopamine

·       Acetylcholine

·       GABA

·       Serotonin

·       Norepinepherin

Examples of Nootropics


Many nootropics have synergistic and cumulative effects. Beginners are urged to research and develop a nootropic stack. A stack is a specific group of nootropic stimulants you will take daily. Be sure to monitor the effects, the dosages, and to refine the stack accordingly. Common beginner nootropics are:




Piracetam is the first cognitive enhancer supplement, discovered in 1964 by Belgium Doctor Giurgea. Piracetam is said to improve memory, concentration and the fortitude of association between both hemispheres of the brain. Piracetam is also known to show affirmative side effects on creativity. For more information on Piracetam, including dosage and research information, follow the previous link.


In a similar vein as Piracetam there are other racetams. Their effects and intensity vary and are generally considered stronger than Piracetam. These include Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam, Nefiracetam, Sunifiram, Unifiram and many more. 




Choline is a member of the Vitamin B family and is often supplemented with Piracetam. Choline affects the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, responsible for processing information. Choline improves clarity, memory, attention, mood, and memory. For more information on Choline, including dosage and research information, follow the link.




Modafinil is a medication intended for use by sufferers of narcolepsy disorder. This is more advanced than the two products mentioned above and cannot be obtained in the United States without prescription. Search the internet for other options. The drug affects affects dopamine levels. As intended Modafinil assists with alertness, attention, and wakefulness.


Other nootropics include:
Lion’s Mane
Fish Oil


Choline – Overview, Dosage, Side Effects & Research

What is Choline?


Choline is a nootropic, or cognitive enhancer supplement, which is used to improve memory. Choline has also been to known to help with:


·       Mental clarity

·       Attention / Concentration

·       Focus

·       Mood

·       Memory


Choline is part of the B Vitamin family and has shown relatively little known side effects. Choline is used to treat:


·       Alzheimer’s Disease


Choline is naturally found in foods such as eggs, meat, liver, fish and beans. Choline is often recommended for users of nootropics such as piracetam as the body’s need for choline is increased during supplementation.


What is the best Choline dosage?


It is recommended the average man take 550 mg Choline minimum, whether by supplement or through food ingestion. The average women needs 425 mg Choline minimum. It is recommended – racetam users experiment with optimal Choline doses.


The maximum recommended daily intake for Choline in adults is 3.5g.


What are the side effects of Choline?


If people take high doses of Choline they may experience some side effects. These effects include:

·       Nausea

·       Vomiting

·       Diarrhea

·       Increased sweatiness


There is some concern Choline supplementation could promote cardiovascular disease. However more research is needed for proper determination.


How does Choline work?


Choline works by affecting the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine. Choline increases the amount of acetylcholine produced. Acetylcholine holds the honor of first ever identified neurotransmitter. It affects both the central and peripheral nervous system. Acetylcholine plays a cardinal role in the way our brain regulates information processing and memory related functions. An inadequacy in acetylcholine / choline could be detrimental for memory recall, memory loss, and the building of new memories.


History / Studies of Choline


There have been many studies testing the effects on Choline in human patients. One such study says:

“Ninety-two patients affected by chronic cerebrovasculopathy were treated with cytidine diphosphate choline ( CDP-choline ) 1000 mg/day i.m. or with placebo, in a double-blind study. Two cycles of therapy of 4 weeks each were performed, with an interval of 1 week. There were 46 patients in each group with chronic cerebrovascular diseases, and the two groups were comparable as far as mental deterioration was concerned. The comparison between the two groups revealed significant improvements in the CDP-choline group compared with the placebo group in some of the attention capabilities. No side-effects were detected in the CDP-choline group.”


Adrafinil Dosage: 2016 BEST Guide on the web

What is Dosage?

A dose is: “a quantity of a medicine or drug taken or recommended to be taken at a particular time”.

Although true, most of us are more concerned with ensuring we get the desired effect from our drug, so the following definition would be more accurate for our purpose:


“An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.”


The key difference here being the term “therapeutic response”, which means the desired and beneficial effect of a drug intended by the user.


The dose most certainly makes the poison, and not only when referring to supplements and drugs. Even the air we breath and the water we drink can become toxic in large concentrations. On the other hand we have therapy. Even the greatest drug becomes useless if dosed too low.


The remedy to this situation is to know the effective dosage for the drug or supplement you are taking. Is it 100mg once a day? 200Mg twice a day? Well the good thing is that the proper dosages for most supplements and drugs are well known.


Every drug has side effects. Luckly most rarely experience them. Did you drink coffee this morning. If you did you took the drug caffeine. You probably didn’t feel many side effects from your caffeine, but you’d probably be surprised at the list of side effects that caffeine can possibly cause. Just take a look at the official list of all the possible side effects caffeine may cause.

adrafinil dose mg


We want to maximize the positives and minimize the negatives. But why are there negatives in the first place!? Surely drug companies spend billions of dollars making sure a drug is perfect before it goes out to the public – true – but they can only ensure this for the majority of people. This means that a certain percentage of users may experience negative effects.

So before we delve into the details surrounding Adrafinil dosage, it’s probably best to briefly run over some basic principles about drug side effects. 

Drug side effects (ADR’s)

Everyone varies in their unique physiology, thus the quantity of any given drug will have a varying effect on the body, which although usually beneficial, can also include a variety of unwanted side effects AKA – Adverse Drug Reaction’s (ADR’s).

adrafinil max dose

I would like to point out that no drug is completely void of ADR’s, for instance, the commonly used and openly available drug Caffeine, has the following list of ADR’s



More common

Diarrhea, Dizziness, fast heartbeat, hyperglycemia, including blurred vision, drowsiness, dry mouth, flushed dry skin, fruit-like breath odor, increased urination, ketones in urine, loss of appetite, nausea, stomachache, tiredness, troubled breathing, unusual thirst, or vomiting (in newborn babies). Hypoglycemia, including anxious feeling, blurred vision, cold sweats, confusion, cool pale skin, drowsiness, excessive hunger, fast heartbeat, nausea, nervousness, restless sleep, shakiness, or unusual tiredness or weakness (in newborn babies), irritability, nervousness, or severe jitters (in newborn babies), nausea (severe), tremors, trouble in sleeping, vomiting.


Abdominal or stomach bloating, dehydration, diarrhea (bloody), unusual tiredness or weakness.

I am showing you this dazzling array of scary words to firmly plant your feet back on the ground when thinking ADR’s. Clearly most people reading this will have taken Caffeine, and found no negative ADR’s at a standard dose, but there will always be those who experienced some ADR’s (usually a minority).  The point of this is that you most likely experienced none of these. This is the case with most drugs. There exists a laundry list of side effects, yet you may rarely or never experience any one of them.

Just how Caffeine commonly causes users to urinate more frequently, Adrafinil will have it’s own common list of ADR’s which will be common, but more importantly a large list of ADR’s which will be rare.

So what are Adrafinil’s ADR’s?



Adrafinil is processed by the liver and broken down into the active metabolite – Modafinil. With this being the case, Adrafinil shares most possible side efffects with Modafinil. Below is the list of possible side effects taken directly from the Modafinil Package Insert:

Side effects reported greater than or equal to 5% occurrence over placebo: Headache, Nausea, Nervousness, Rhinitis, Diarrhea, Back Pain, Anxiety, Insomnia, Dizziness, and Dyspepsia.

**We have outlined some of them below, but for the most in depth and up-to-date information, we have dedicated a whole page to Adrafinil side effects

A study published in 2002 outlined some of the side effects specific to Adrafinil, as a pro-drug.

  • stomach pain
  • skin irritation
  • anxiety
  • Elevated liver enzymes (with prolonged use)

Adrafinil – Recommended Dosage?

Let me start off buy pointing out that Adrafinil was sold up until 2011 by the pharmaceutical company Lafon Labs, under the brand name Olmifon. Although the product is no longer available as Olmifon, I have obtained a copy of the official manufactures insert, which you can see here below.

ADRAFINIL (Olmifon®)

adrafinil manufactures insert


Adrafinil; Corn starch, modified sodic carboxymethyl-cellulose, polyvidone excipient, glycerol, magnesium steate, talc, lactose, polyoxyethylene glycol 4000, titanium dioxide, polymethly acrylate glycerol.

Information for the User

This product is a psycotonic. It is recommended for elderly patients who have difficulty staying alert and who suffer from a general slowing down of mental activity.


1. The effectiveness of Olmifon® has not yet been tested on the non-elderly.
2. This preparation contains an active ingredient, which could induce a positive result in anti-doping tests for athletes.


If you suffer from epilepsy, or serious hepatic or renal disorders, consult your doctor before taking this product. Do not hesitate to seek advice from your doctor or chemist, if there is any chance of an interaction-taking place between different medicines. Any additional treatment should be reported, especially if you are taking neuroepileptic medicines. Keep this and all other medicines safely out of the reach of children.

Side Effects

As with any active product, this medicine may possibly cause side effects. Headache, stomach pains and skin irritations have been reported in clinical tests, and in certain cases, inner tension.


2 to 4 tablets daily. Please follow your doctor’s instructions.

Prescription Conditions

This product has been prescribed for you in order to remedy a particular medical problem. Do not use it to treat other ailments. Do not use it again without first consulting your doctor. Do not use it to treat another person. Consult your doctor.

Within the insert it states the recommended dose is “2 to 4 tablets daily”, with each tablet containing 300mg of Adrafinil Powder, this equates to 600 to 1200mg daily. However, I have to point out that Olmifon was prescribed to the elderly to combat excessive tiredness and narcolepsy, so this recommended dosage is intended as a guide for those symptoms. 

 olmifon 300mg


After some research regarding the recommended dosage for Adrafinil I have come across a variety of dosages which have been cited, see below.

Source Recommendation
  • The standard dosage for Adrafinil is reported to be 600-1,200mg, which for the purpose of treating narcolepsy was either 600mg twice daily (morning and midday) or 600-900mg taken once daily upon waking
  • Under 65 years of age take 1 to 2 tablets in the morning and at midday, preferably with food.
  • 70 years of age and above take 1 tablet in the morning and at midday, preferably with food.
Study 1 – Dogs
  • 20mg/Kg and 10mg/kg (equivalent to 700mg and 1400mg respectively, for a 70kg human)
Study 2 – Research Animales
  • 64mg/Kg to 256mg/kg (equivalent to 420mg and 17920mg respectively, for a 70kg human) THIS IS A HIGH DOSE ON RESEARCH ANIMALS

It is very important to distinguish the difference in dosages here, ranging from 300mg to 1200mg, for humans. It is also very important to note the laboratory dose administered to research animals. Some of these are extremely high and should never be taken by humans. Interestingly, the animals survived these mega doses and managed to complete task as governed by the study. So it seems that, in some instances, even high doses of Adrafinil may be well tolerated in living organisms.   

Although the above discussion can give you a good idea of an effective dose of Adrafinil, I would say that the dosage range is fairly wide, from 300mg to 1200mg and in some instances higher doses have been reported with varying success. So for many people, their decision on dosage relies on the subjective Adrafinil reviews they come across on the internet. Users on the site Reddit have reported taking doses much higher than those specified in the package insert. These Redditors may have felt fine after their heroic doses, but doses above those specified in the package insert have not been proven safe in humans. 

It is important to note that we are talking about all formulations of Adrafinil, as to my knowledge there is no extended release version of Adrafinil. So these discussions here relate directly to, Adrafinil powder, pills, capsules and solutions. It is the users responsibility to determine the amount of active ingredient within their specific Adrafinil formulation. 


Want to skip directly to our dedicated “buyer’s guide” find it here: Buy Adrafinil

Adrafinil – High dose, Max dose and Lethal dose


Adrafinil high dose

As touched upon early, Adrafinil does seem to be well tolerated by the body even at relatively high doses. Due to there being relatively few studies conducted on humans, it is more appropriate to discuss the subjective high doses reported by users in internet forums. 

Some reddit discussion have discussed the effects of a high dose, saying that they felt a marked increase in therapeutic effect up to a certain point. One user reported not increase in effect beyond 700mg. The discussions have further pointed out that unlike some other drugs like Morphine, there will be a ceiling effect. This means users will not experience more effects after a certain dose is reached. Many drugs will have a rate limiting step, and this may also be true for Adrafinil due to a limitation with the enzyme needed for its metabolism.

Another reddit discussion has one user asking if 1200mg is too high for a single dose. Most responses indicate this is too high, with one user recommending a switch to Modafinil if they are not getting the desired effects from a normal adrafinil dose. 

Another user claims that Adrafinil is most effective on a completely empty stomach, with nothing having been ingested 1 hour before dosing and 1 hour after. 

I would conclude by saying that it’s not a good idea to ingest more than around 600mg in one go, and no more that 1200mg per day. I believe that the side effects from a dose higher than this may be uncomfortable. Although there may be ceiling effect, it is likely that very high doses may cause your liver to over work, and may cause damage.

With regards to Adrafinil max dose, there doesn’t seem to be all that much information from user reports, which is probably a good thing! There are some reports of people taking 1200mg in one go which is not necessarily a max dose, but is fairly high for a single dose. I would say that users should not really stray far from 1200mg per day. The likely hood of ADR’s increases, and you will probably find it difficult to sleep. 

Adrafinil – Low dose?


Although not so commonly discussed as Adrafinil high dose, there is still some talk of Adrafinil low dose, and what may be the lowest dose for a therapeutic effect.


It seems that there is some discussion of low doses, with a question being posed on reddit for 50mg of Adrafinil. Most responses go on to discuss the equivalent Modafinil dosage – which I think is a fair comparison to make. 50mg Adrafinil was thought to have roughly one third the potency of Modafinil, so this being true, it would seem that a 17mg dose of Adrafinil would be a low dose. Skip to our dedicated artile all about Adrafinil vs Modafinil.


However, another user reports, in the same discussion, that they have a a therapeutic effect with as little as 25-50mg, adding “I’m pretty sensitive to this chemical“.


I think one comment left by a user in this discussion who claims to be a pharmacy technician, is useful for deciding on Adrafinil doses – “I work as a pharmacy technician and I don’t know how many times I’ve heard a pharmacist say no drug effects two people the same way. There is someone out there that 50 mg of adrafinil is too much“.


Adrafinil – first time or starting dose?


Adrafinil low dose

One user in an Adrafinil first time experience thread, reports to have taken 50mg as a starting dose to make sure he does not get any unwanted ADR’s and to generally “play it safe“. The report goes on to say that within around 30 minutes after dosing, he felt slightly heavier and felt a sense of being obligated to concentrate on uninteresting things. The report goes on to describe the experience in a very positive light and is well worth a read

I would advise to start off with maybe 20mg. This dose is a tester, just so your body can adjust to the compound and give you some feedback. Most people will probably feel very little at this dose, but some may find this adequate. If you are sensitive to adrafinil, it is good to either stay at this starting dose, then move your way up only as you fit. If you are not sensitive, move onto 100mg then 200mg and upwards as you feel is necessary. If you feel nothing after taking a 700mg dose, it is probably wise to discontinue Adrafinil.  

Adrafinil Dosage Longecity and Reddit


There are so many threads on reddit discussing dosage, so I wanted to give my readers an idea of the discussions being had  – without the need for them to read through pages and pages of forum chats. 


So here is a summary of the dosages people have reported to be therapeutically beneficial in a single day. Please take this information as anecdotal. 


Within the reddit community from the many pages I have read, it seems that most users are happy with a standard dosage of 300mg in the morning and another re-dose in the afternoon of the same amount. Some users will say that they will take 600mg in the morning with another 600mg in the afternoon, however, it is all dependent on your weight. 


The users of longecity report similar findings, most the discussion about Adrafinil dosage is between 300 – 600mg per day. 


Adrafinil dosage compared to Modafinil?


It is very easy for users to confuse the two products, as many online discussions talk about the comparison of dose between the two. Due to this topic being so highly discussed and searched for online, we have dedicated an entire page to it here: Adrafinil vs Modafinil.

Can’t teach an old dog new tricks? Adrafinil can!

old dog new tricksSo we all know the old saying –  “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks” – well this may be true to some extent, but this has not stopped scientists at the University of Toronto at Scarborough from challenging the old phrase.

Using aged beagle dogs, scientists administered oral solutions containing 20mg/kg of Adrafinil or a placebo control, while testing the dogs ability to learn certain tasks, pre-determined by the scientists.

Findings showed that the dogs under the influence of Adrafinil showed a decrease in error rate and a significant increase in learning, when compared to the placebo control group.

This outcome comes as no surprised, however, the reason for the improvement is yet to be fully understood. It may be the case the Adrafinil allowed the dogs exhibit more motivation, and via this increased motivation, and increased willingness to learn the skills required. Alternatively, the results may have been a result of increased vigilance due to Adrafinils ability increase levels or adrenalin.

Whatever the reason, the results are the same. Another positive response from our favourite nootropic.

A unique psychopharmacologic profile of adrafinil

A unique psychopharmacologic profile of adrafinil in mice by Rambert FA, Pessonnier J, de Sereville JE, Pointeau AM, Duteil J J Pharmacol 1986 Jan-Mar; 17(1):37-52


The following psychopharmacological effects of adrafinil have been observed in mice: increase in locomotor activity (64-256, antagonism (16-128 of the hypnotic effects of barbitone but not of pentobarbitone, reduction of immobility duration in the forced swimming test (16-256; slight antagonism (256 of electroshock-induced convulsions; no modification of rectal temperature; no stereotyped or climbing behaviour; no increase in lethality in aggregated mice (LD50 isolated = 1022, LD50 aggregated = 859; lack of effects on the provisional tests for antidepressants: no interaction with reserpine-, oxotremorine-, or apomorphine-induced hypothermia but potentiation of yohimbine-induced toxicity; lack of peripheral sympathetic effects (no mydriasis, no salivation, no contraction of the pilomotor muscles, no antagonism of reserpine-induced ptosis); lack of peripheral anticholinergic effects (no mydriasis, no antagonism of oxotremorine-induced salivation or lacrimation). As compared to no analeptic, anticholinergic or antidepressant drugs, adrafinil shows a unique behavioural profile in mice defined on the one hand by a specific stimulant activity associated with antidepressant-like effects that do no seem related to a beta-adrenergic mechanism and on the other hand by a lack of dopaminergic effects. Most adrafinil-induced effects (increase in locomotor activity, reduction of immobility duration in the forced swimming test) may correspond to a central alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation, but the unexpected lack of peripheral sympathetic effects remains unexplained.

Adrafinil and Effects on the Liver


Adrafinil, also known as Olmifon, is generally taken as a substitute to Modafinil, a nootropic drug, which can be quite expensive and which requires prescription before it may be consumed. The alternative of ingesting Adrafinil instead of Modafinil is popular because the effects of both drugs are the same in the sense that both drugs offer an increase in the levels of one’s alertness and mental energy. One drawback of using Adrafinil, however, is that it may be responsible for the build-up of detrimental enzymes in the liver. Hence, it is important to consider the possible liver toxicity in deciding on whether the addition of this drug to one’s daily practice should be done. Adrafinil and its effects should be clearly and deeply looked at in order to fully comprehend the gravity of the issues and problems that may develop in its consumption.


Contrary to popular belief, even so-called “safe drugs” also have side effects related to them, especially on one’s liver. An example of this would be Tylenol, a drug containing Acetaminophen, which, more or less, have the same hepatoxicity as that of Adrafinil. Even more alarming is that this regularly used product contains a very poisonous metabolite. Nevertheless, there are still methods in which these possible liver issues may be resolved. Everything is up to the individual’s decision to balance the benefits over the risks. A deeper understanding on what Adrafinil is, its workings, effects and potential side effects, however, is necessary for an individual to be informed of his decision. Toxicity in the liver, in general, is also of the utmost importance.


What Is Adrafinil?


heightening of attentiveness, focus and concentration.


The compound Adrafinil is classified under substances called eugeroics which literally means ‘good arousers’ as they are generally taken as a alertness agent Adrafinil has been proven to be essential in curing people with sleeping problems like narcolepsy and sleep apnea. Adrafinil brings a stimulant-like effect but has less dangerous effects compared to the usual stimulants available since Adrafinil takes a different trail of action.


More popularly known as Olmifon, Adrafinil was discovered by a pharmaceutical company in France in the 1970’s. It is currently unregulated in the US and Canada but has been permitted for common use across Europe. Aside from promoting alertness, Adrafinil also has some Nootropic effects such as a boost in one’s mood and mental drive, as well as the heightening of attentiveness, focus and concentration.


How Does Adrafinil Work?


On the question of the procedure in which the drug works, the process itself is intricate and is yet to be fully understood. Nevertheless, Adrafinil is believed to have an effect on the Dopamine and Serotonin systems, both neurotransmitters responsible for the way one thinks and feels. Dopamine is responsible in the enhancement of one’s reward suystems, while serotonin, on the other hand, is mainly responsible for one’s sleep cycles and sense of pleasure amongst other things.


Aside from affecting Dopamine and Serotonin, Adrafinil, poses a promising effect on an individual’s hitamine levels which may further increase the sense of being alert. Since Adrafinil converts into Modafinil in the liver, the effects of Adrafinil becomes comparable to the effects of Modafinil. Some of which are inclined to enhance productivity, lessen signs of depression and improve mental performance in general.


Effects of Adrafinil on the Liver:


The effects may vary from one person to another.


As previously mentioned, Adrafinil breaks down into Modafinil when it reaches a person’s liver. This process causes the level of key enzymes to increase as there is a strain put upon the liver. The continued build-up of these enzymes may eventually cause long-standing damage to the liver and the symptoms of these may manifest six months after daily intake. Needless to say, different people have different levels of sensitivity, hence, the effects may vary from one person to another.


Nevertheless, consumption of Adrafinil, at suggested levels of dosage, is still deemed safe to physically fit people. Everyday consumption of Adrafinil is not advised. Instead, there should be a cycle in taking the drug so that the liver may have the chance to have a rest and to flush out the dangerous enzymes. Failure of the kidney to have some rest may lead to some issues. Obviously, an individual with a medical history of liver problems should refrain from taking Adrafinil without consulting a doctor. Adrafinil should also not be taken together with other drugs or be taken with alcohol.


Putting Hepatoxicity In Perspective:


Even aspirin is deemed to be detrimental to the liver when used frequently


The main issue with one’s liver lies on the fact that it operates as a processing center for a person’s body. There is a considerable amount of strain put upon the livers whenever an individual drinks alcohol, eats particular foods or ingests supplements, since these are all metabolized in the liver. Some chemicals are tougher on the liver compared to others, even aspirin is deemed to be detrimental to the liver when used frequently. Hence, it would not fair to say the Adrafinil is the sole cause of hepatotoxicity, rather it may contribute if taken for too long or in high doses.


Possible Side Effects of Adrafinil:


The supplement must not be taken together with other uppers such as caffeinated drinks


Consumption of Adrafinil has some adverse side effects especially if ingested at high dosages. These side effects include an increase in blood pressure and heart-related problems, hence, susceptible users who suffer from high blood pressure issues, as well as heart conditions, should consult their doctor before taking Adrafinil. The supplement must not be taken together with other uppers such as caffeinated drinks. One must always start with the lowest dosage, so the body may adjust to the drug. The suggested dosage is about 150 to 300 mg a day. Furthermore, as previously mentioned, the supplement should not be taken continuously in order to avoid Liver Toxicty. For more information on the possible effects of the supplement, it is highly recommended that the individual read current users’ review online.


Adrafinil vs Modafinil, Which is the Better Drug?


Since Adrafinil and Modafinil are very similar, it is very interesting to know the differences between thes two smart drugs. Both drugs are well-known nootropic accessible to people today which provide benefits in cognition, productivity, memory and alertness. People who are endowed with superior intellect, drive and focus have an advantage in various aspects of life, as well as business. This is especially true when academic and work environments become increasingly competitive. As such, nootropics like Adrafinil and Modafinil becomes more sought-after than ever.


To be an informed user, it is best to look at these differences in the determination of the best drug to consume.


The question now is which Eugeronic drug is better to consume – Adrafinil or Modafinil? While both drugs provide similar benefits, there are significant differences between Adrafinil and Modafinil especially in their mechanism of action, possible health risks and legal status. To be an informed user, it is best to look at these differences in the determination of the best drug to consume.


Adrafinil and its benefits:


Adrafinil is commonly used in various countries across Europe as medical treatment for people who suffer from sleeping problems such as sleep apnea and narcolepsy since one notable effect of Adrafinil is on aiding people to normalize sleeping patterns. Adrafinil also effectively works as an instrument in endorsing alertness and wakefulness.


An increase in energy levels has also been reported by Adrafinil users. This is brought about by the increase of Hypocretin, a neurotransmitter responsible in controlling alertness and wakefulness, as well as rise in the amount of catchlomines, in the brain. These chemicals are responsible in the promotion of heightened awareness, focus, attention span and even physical stamina.


Since Adrafinil causes an increase dopamine and serotonin in the brain, the users also feel that their moods generally improved. Dopamine and Serotonin are neurotransmitters associated in the feelings of pleasure, hence, able to decrease feelings of stress, anxiety or fatigue. A boost in the productivity of one’s person is a logical consequence of this mood enhancement since there is more motivation and better ability to work.


Aside from providing stimulant-like effects on mood and energy, Adrafinil also has cognitive benefits as it is able to activate glutamate receptors in the brain. As a result, improved speed of recall and enhanced memory can be felt. Needless to say, the effects of the supplement may vary from one person to another but these are the general effects that may be experienced. Adrafinil is also generally used in studying as it makes studying and learning easier.


Modafinil and its benefits:


Adrafinil works except that Modafinil is believed to be faster-acting and the effects of the drug last longer


As already established, Modafinil works similarly to how Adrafinil works except that Modafinil is believed to be faster-acting and the effects of the drug last longer. Both drugs were developed by Lafon, a French pharmaceutical company, for the treatment of sleep disorders or extreme fatigue since they promote alertness and wakefulness. Modafinil also has the capacity to increase overall mental and physical energy levels. The increase in energy has been reported to aid an individual, not suffering from any sleeping problems, in keeping awake and vigilant for as long as 40 hours. Eventually, sleeping would be inevitable as the effects of the drug wear off.


Users also report to having easier times in doing everyday tasks such as writing, reading, talking, and even delivering presentations


The effects in cognition are also very similar to the effects of Adrafinil which include, among others, an enhanced memory, speed of recall, and improved learning capacity, along with an expanded attention span and heightened focus and concentration. Users also report to having easier times in doing everyday tasks such as writing, reading, talking, and even delivering presentations. There is consistent higher energy level in consuming this drug, as opposed to the spike then burn-out feeling associated with conventional stimulants like caffeine or amphetamines.


Where Can You Buy Adrafinil Powder Online?




Olmifon powder, a supplement which has Nootropic benefits and stimulant effects, is commonly used as a substitute to Adderall and other drugs for the treatment of ADD/ADHD for its capacity to increase liveliness and focus. The dominant reason, however, that Olmifon, or Adrafinil, is sought after as a substitute for similar drugs is that Olmifon does not require prescription in order that it may be ingested. The primary role of Olmifon is to increase wakefulness but it also gives a boost in the mental performance of an individual. Due to its strong effects, Olmifon is normally not deemed the right starter nootropic and that it is better given to the people with experience in taking compounds within the same class. The question now lies on where Olmifon can be bought online and whether or not a prescription is needed in purchasing the supplement.


As proven clinically, the supplement increases the energy levels, both physically and mentally


The powder was discovered by Lafon, a French pharmaceutical company, and was sold in Europe by Cephalon. Olmifon was discontinued after 25 years of manufacture, however, the main ingredient may still be bought as Adrafinil. The drug is mainly used in the treatment of people suffering from various sleeping problems such as narcolepsy. Studies also show that the drug may be of help in the treatment of ADHD and for extreme fatigue in the day. The drug is identified to reinstate normal sleeping patterns and to enhance wakefulness and attentiveness which helps people to keep focused despite lack of sleep.


As proven clinically, the supplement increases the energy levels, both physically and mentally, since the supplement is believed to be mainly responsible for the enhancement of the overall mood of an individual. Many users of the drug report of feeling much less stressed and anxious while ingesting Olmifon, and since their moods improve, they are more compelled to be productive in their respective lives.


Olmifon brings about certain cognitive advantages especially since it is also identified as a Nootropic. For one, the supplement helps enhance memory and recall. Undeniably, this varies from one person to another but most evaluations and reports say that this is a noticeable effect, thereby making Olmifon a possible similar drug to other memory-boosting Racetams. Moreover, students testify of experiencing an extended learning capability, as well as enhanced comprehension of ideas and concepts. The increase in energy also led to an enhanced ability to concentrate and focus, and to develop an extended attention span.


How Does Olmifon Powder Work:


The precise process on how the drug works is yet to be uncovered. However, it is to be believed that Olmifon is comparable to other Nootropics. For one, the effects are similar to that of Modafinil’s since Olmifon is broken down into Modafinil when it reaches the liver. Olmifon has a distinct effect on the Glutamate when it binds to the receptor sites thereby effectively preventing the breakdown of the neurotransmitter. Glutamate is involved in the foundation of memory and other mental processes, as such, Olmifon is considered as a cerebral enhancer.


The supplement also excites the central nervous system in a way which increases the production of Hypocretin, a neurotransmitter usually related to energy and attentiveness. The drug is also associated to the increase in the production of Dopamine, a hormone responsible for mood and movement, and Norepinephrine and Histamine, both responsible for improving energy levels. Olmifon prevents the breakdown of Dopamine and increases the levels of Serotonin in the brain. The latter mentioned chemicals, resulting from the intake of the supplement, are the reasons for the enhanced mood and decreased stress levels.


How to Use Olmifon Powder:


Cycling the intake of the supplement is highly recommended.


The suggested dosage of this supplement is of utmost importance to the individuals interested in its consumption. Olmifon is a strong substance which one would should not overlook (when deciding) the range of a safe dosage. The recommended dosage is within 150 to 300 mg a day. Although the amount may seem small, especially to those regular users of typical Nootropics, an individual must stay within this range. It is even more advisable to begin with small amounts of dosage so that the body may be accustomed to the drug, hence, the increase in dosage should be done cautiously. Cycling the intake of the supplement is highly recommended.


Where Can Olmifon Powder be bought:


Since Olmifon is not a regulated drug in the US, it is not be accessible in conventional drug stores or vitamin shops. The most convenient place to look for and purchase Olmifon is through online sources. It is best to be reminded that the actual product to be bought is Adrafinil, as Olmifon is a brand that was already phased out. This is a good thing, especially since generic Adrafinil is less expensive than Olmifon. While there are many sources online, it is best to deal with a business with a reputable record of quality products and favorable user reviews.


Adrafinil Powder – Where Can I Buy It?


Buy Adrafinil Powder

Adrafinil is a well-known nootropic but some find may find its safe purchase challengin due to it’s limited supply. One of the best places to look for Adrafinil powder is via a google search where you can find it relatively cheaply, however, most stores opt to supply Adrafinil in capsules, which for the enthusiast may not be ideal.

Adrafinil (Olmifon) was developed by Lafon Laboratories, a pharmaceutical company in France, as type of a smart drug also known as a Eugeroics, which plainly translates as ‘good arousal’. The drug, which is intended to enhance alertness and attentiveness, has been accepted for medical use in various countries across Europe. The supplement is not yet regulated in US and may be bought privately, as opposed to Modafinil, which requires a prescription from a doctor. The question, however, lies on how effective the supplement is, and the benefits it brings when compared with the currently existing Nootropic supplements on the market.


Various workers consume this supplement to ensure that they keep awake and alert for their job


As previously established, Adrafinil is not always easy to purchase online for the reasons that the vendors also have difficulties in keeping a consistent supply of the product. As a Eugeroic, Adrafinil may be considered as a ‘good arousal’ agent, and numerous countries in Europe have permitted the use of Adrafinil for medical purposes as it enhances one’s vigilance, wakefulness and attentiveness. The sellers are capable of providing the products to users easily since Adrafinil is not regulated in the UK and US, hence, there are less paperwork and legal barriers to deal with.


Adrafinil users report various benefits with the use of the supplement, as attested in their online reviews. While it is widely used as a medication for sleep apnea and narcolepsy, it is also believed to aid in the increase of energy levels of the individual, as well as the restoration of a sense of general happiness. As such, various workers consume this supplement to ensure that they keep awake and alert for their job. A number of people also use this supplement to keep their focus and drive. As a common practice, new users of the drug are cautious in trying a new substance, which is why it is better for the potential user to check online reviews on Adrafinil before choosing to consume the supplement.


Other consumers and researchers who claim that the drug is also effective in helping them overcome social anxiety


Aside from the previously mentioned benefits, Adrafinil also offers various cognitive effects; hence, it is considered a nootropic. These benefits include, among others, enhancement of memory, increase in mental energy, as well as the improvement of concentration and focus. These benefits are some of the reasons why consuming Adrafinil is generally regarded as being able to boost one’s productivity, such as staying awake while studying for an exam. There are other consumers and researchers who claim that the drug is also effective in helping them overcome social anxiety and introversion as they become more talkative and sociable.


It is a great idea to read thoroughly on the effects and benefits of Adrafinil but reading this summary will also be of great help. Most people are unable to get a hold of Modafinil, and Adrafinil is one of the best alternatives of Modafinil especially since Adrafinil is actually converted to Modafinil when it is ingested. The benefits of consuming Adrafinil include the feeling of heightened motivation and drive, enhanced memory, improved focus and a feeling of pleasure. There is also a boost in the productivity of users who take the supplement, as well as an improved ability in socializing.


People who are not able to obtain Modafinil for various reasons opt to purchase Adrafinil instead.


How does Adrafinil work?


The precise process on how Adrafinil works is yet to be discovered, however, there are possible explanations offered by some researchers. It is clear that Adrafinil gets broken down to Modafinil when it gets to the liver. This is the main reason why people who are not able to obtain Modafinil for various reasons opt to purchase Adrafinil instead. The drug also increases the amount of Hypocretin, a neurotransmitter, which is believed to be one of the causes for heightened arousal, appetite and wakefulness. The increase in hypocretin in the hypothalamus consequently causes increases in histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that contribute to Adrafinil’s Nootropic-like effects.


Adrafinil is broken into Modafinil but Modafinil’s precise mechanism of action is also unknown. It is recognized that Adrafinil increases hypocretin which modulates dopamine, histamine and serotonin. Since dopamine is generally associated with the body’s reward systems, the increase in hypocretin seemingly contributes to the enhancement of the mood of the consumers. Histamine, on the other hand, is reported to have the ability to arouse the body; hence, it is one of the reasons why Adrafinil is able to improve attentiveness.


Another theory proposed on how Adrafinil works is that it also affects the GABA pathways and glutamate in the sense the GABA pathways are impeded and that the glutamate pathways are stimulated. The theory implies that Adrafinil has the ability to excite and inhibit different part of the brain. Since glutamate is associated with learning and memory formation, while GABA is associated with the relaxing of the body, an increase in glutamate characterizes the excitatory effects of Adrafinil to the brain.


Adrafinil Safety, Side Effects, & Liver Concerns:


There may be some side effects in taking Adrafinil as supplement. Generally, the drug is considered safe, however, it is still important to be conscious of the risks and concerns that may arise in using Adrafinil. One of the drawbacks in consuming the drug is that it puts an additional stress on the heart, but less strain compared to what is observed with amphetamine intake. Such being the case, it is not suitable for persons with heart ailments to consume Adrafinil, but those with healthy hearts should have nothing to worry about. The supplement must also not be used together with other stimulants like Ritalin or Adderall.


It has also been reported that users experience headaches, nausea, stomach discomfort and dizziness when taking Adrafinil. An increase in certain enzymes in the liver, which may cause potential injury to the liver, has also been reported. It is, therefore, best that users, especially new ones, take Adrafinil in small dosages and not daily. If the supplement, however, is to be consumed on a continuing basis, it is advisable that the consumer keeps track of his enzyme levels in the liver and the liver’s functionality. Modafinil, on the other hand, does not have the same effect on the liver, making some people choose to buy Modafinil instead of Adrafinil.


Nevertheless, the side effects associated to Adrafinil use are not very serious. The effects of anxiety, insomnia, irritability and dry mouth only happen when the consumer exceeds the suggested dosage level. The gravest side effects in consuming Adrafinil may be that of chest pains, palpitations, bruising, hallucinations and vomiting.



Despite the fact that Adrafinil and Modafinil offer less danger of falling to drug addiction compared to other stimulants, they should still be taken in moderation. Since the supplement works with dopamine, an addictive chemical, the susceptible users may develop mild addiction, hence it is not recommended that these kinds of drugs be taken more than twice or thrice a week. Continued use of the products may lead to tolerance and/or addiction which is why it is better to consume Adrafinil or Modafinil in cycles.


Adrafinil and other Nootropics:


Adrafinil is comparable to other Nootropics in a way that they stimulating effects to the body. The stimulation, however, is different from that given by caffeine or amphetamines. Users report that they experience a milder effect compared to the ones given by amphetamines or caffeine. This then results to lesser anxiety, insomnia and agitation that what is usually attributed to other stimulants. The difference between Adrafinil’s mechanism of action and of other nootropics are of great interest to most researchers but while not much is known it is best that one should check testimonials and reviews of other users before purchasing Adrafinil online.


The Myth of a Fixed Intelligence


The Myth of a Fixed Intelligence


Is our intelligence determined at birth by our genetic makeup or can it be developed in response to our environment? This is one of the oldest debates about intelligence—the issue of Nature vs. Nurture. I believe that both our genetic inheritance and our environment are involved in the outcome. There is an ever increasing volume of research that indicates that mental functioning can be improved. Intelligence, memory, and learning respond to many factors. The research has reported many aspects of diet, nutrition, and life style that support this. These influences that improve are classified as environmental factors (as opposed to genetic factors). There is some fascinating research that has taken a quantum leap in breaking down the old idea of a fixed intelligence.


The researchers found that the enriched environment produced both more brain cells and larger brain cells!


The pioneering research of the neuroanatomist Dr. Marian Diamond, and her co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley, shows that intelligence, the ability to learn, and even the physical brain itself can be developed. She has recently reported the story of this work in her book, Enriching Heredity: The Impact of the Environment on the Anatomy of the Brain. The Diamond group has been studying how the brains of rats change in response to different environments. The rat brain resembles the human brain in many aspects of both form and functioning. The researchers created three different environmental test conditions: the impoverished environment, the normal environment, and the enriched environment. In the impoverished environment, a single rat would be left alone in a regular-sized laboratory cage. The normal environment consisted of three rats in a regular-sized laboratory cage. The enriched environment was a larger-sized cage with twelve rats and numerous toys. Every few days the rats were taken out of the cages for a few minutes to clean the cages. In the enriched environment, the toys would be randomly placed back in the cage before returning the rats to the cage. The rats in this environment would scurry around, examining and exploring the toys and their new placement. The results of these experiments show that access to stimulating objects and a stimulating environment produces a thicker cerebral cortex—a bigger brain! The researchers found that the enriched environment produced both more brain cells and larger brain cells!


 Our minds are as instinctively motivated to learn as our legs are to walk


Other researchers have shown that these conditions facilitate faster and more accurate problem solving, which is a key component of intelligence. Part of Diamond’s research has shown that an impoverished environment will inhibit brain growth, resulting in a decrease in the size and number of brain cells. This research has also shown that an enriched environment can overcome some of the negative aspects of stress and dietary protein deficiency experienced early in life. Diet, nutrition, the air we breathe, and a stimulating environment can increase levels of important brain chemicals, producing bigger brain cells and faster learning. The brain can and does change in response to its environment. Genetic inheritance is not destiny. Marian Diamond’s research has shown that the brain, at any stage of life, from prenatal to old age, can increase in size and learn faster. Although she has used rats in her research, I feel that her work is making important statements about the potential of developing the human brain. The results from these studies as well as the studies on the nutrients, drugs, and herbs reported in this book argue that our brains can continue to grow throughout our lives. We can truly expand our minds and our potential.


Not only is there a need to maximize the conditions that will enable optimum development of intelligence and mental capabilities, there is also a great need to teach people how to think, to learn, and to reason. I believe that these skills can and should be taught. It has been my experience that the traditional approach to education is not focused on developing effective methods to teach these skills. Instead, the emphasis is on learning facts and memorization. A Gallup poll asked parents what they would most like their children to gain from their education. Most parents wanted their children “to learn how to think.” I believe our minds are as instinctively motivated to learn as our legs are to walk. Just as the legs of a champion have to be trained, so our minds have to be taught and trained to function at their best. Scientists from such diverse disciplines as neurophysiology and anthropology are finding evidence that the human brain changes in accordance with changes in understanding and awareness. In other words, as our understanding and awareness changes, the brain that has processed new information also changes. The more we know, the more we can know. The more we understand, the more we can understand. Learning how to think creates changes in the brain at the cellular level that facilitate better thinking. Albert Einstein said, “It is not so very important for a person to learn facts. For that he does not really need a college. He can learn them from books.” The value of an education in a liberal arts college is not the learning of many facts but the training of the mind to think something that cannot be learned from books.


Many children are held back in their learning because they have a model of learning in which you have either “got it” or “got it wrong”


The art of thinking begins with a change in the individual’s belief system about one’s ability to think and about the nature of intelligence. It is true that we have much to learn about how the mind functions, but the first step is to acknowledge and understand what science has already proven—that our minds can grow and change. The research on intelligence, memory, learning, and the brain leads to the conclusion that the critical issue is not whether it is possible to enhance intelligence and mental facilities, but how far we can go in enlarging the frontiers of the mind.


In addition to teaching the skill of thinking and learning, we also need to change the common attitude that answers are only right or wrong. In his book Mindstorms, Seymore Papert made the following comments about an attitude toward learning that is developed by many computer programmers. He said, many children are held back in their learning because they have a model of learning in which you have either “got it” or “got it wrong.” But when you program a computer you almost never get it right the first time. Learning to be a master programmer is learning to become highly skilled at isolating and correcting “bugs,” the parts that keep the program from working. The question to ask about the program is not whether it is right or wrong, but if it is fixable. If this way of looking at intellectual products were generalized to how the larger culture thinks about knowledge and its acquisition, we all might be less intimidated by our fears about “being wrong.” Children learning programming skills in grade school are developing a priceless by-product. They are developing a new attitude about errors and a new attitude and confidence about thinking and learning. When children have the will to stick with a problem and to examine and adjust their thinking until they can get something to work (on a computer or in life), an important level of confidence begins to grow. Discipline switches from an external and oppressing “get it right the first time” to an internal and intellectual “make it work.”


“The world’s greatest resources are to be found in human intelligence, ingenuity, and imagination.”


Buckminster Fuller was one of the outstanding minds of all time. In a speech about what the world would be like in the year 2000, he said, “The world’s greatest resources are to be found in human intelligence, ingenuity, and imagination.” Early in his life, Bucky discovered the secret of having a passion for learning and understanding life, and he spent the rest of his life trying to give that secret away to others. In an editorial eulogizing Buckminster Fuller, Norman Cousins wrote the following, “If we read Bucky Fuller solely for information we will obtain information, but we will be cheating ourselves. We should read him for the increased respect he gives us for human potential, and for the lesson that there are no boundaries to the human mind, which he celebrates above all else.”


We can make Buckminster Fuller’s dream a reality. There are no boundaries to the human mind.

6 Ways of Improving Mental Performance

Improving mental performance

Over the years records in all sports continue to be broken, and the level of human athletic performance continues to improve. We do not know what or where the limits lie or when they will be reached. I would like to suggest that a similar condition and situation is possible with the human mind. Is it not possible, even logical and probable, that we can find ways to improve and increase the performance of our minds? Good nutrition combined with exercise leads to improved athletic performance. By lifting weights we can become stronger and lift more weight. What about nourishing, training, and flexing our mental muscles? Can it be done?


Research shows that it is indeed possible, but we need to make the same level of commitment to intellectual excellence as does the champion athlete to physical performance. We do not yet know what optimum levels of intelligence are, but research is showing us the way to increase intelligence and mental capabilities. I am not suggesting that we can go beyond either maximum athletic performances or similar maximum intellectual capabilities. What I am saying is that since very few people even approach their maximum capabilities, we need to maximize the potential that we do have.


Just what do we need to do to accomplish this?


Exercise and proper diet are the foundation in both improving and maintaining high levels of both physical and mental performance. However, this section will focus primarily on cognitive enhancers, herbal preparations and nutrients that are capable of enhancing memory, learning, recall, and other mental functions. There are a number of ways that substances can act to improve cognitive functions. They can:


1. Increase the level of neurotransmitters in the brain.


2. Improve brain cell metabolism.


3. Optimize the action of certain enzymes.


4. Increase the supply of oxygen to brain cells.


5. Dissolve and remove cellular garbage deposits from cells.


6. Improve the level of electrical activity in the brain. Advances in modern technology are responsible for the sudden emergence of this new area, cognitive enhancement. For example, the new high-powered electron microscopes enable us to see smaller, look deeper, and understand more than we ever have. Until recently, we could only look at brain cells. Now we can actually look inside brain cells. We are now able to look at both the structures and the processes of the brain and learn how they function. This is giving us clues on ways to enhance information processing capabilities and improve the brain’s memory, storage, and retrieval processes.


Adrafinil Info – Dosage, Side Effects & Reviews

Adrafinil Information

Adrafinil is a relatively new alertness promoting nootropic or “smart drugs”. It has come to light recently as a legal replacement to Modafinil. Both being powerful eurgeroic agents means they can act on the bodies ability to stay awake and be in a state of locked in focus for many hours at a time. Although not commonly understood, Adrafinil is actually known as a pro-drug, in that it is able to convert directly into Modafinil in the bodies metabolic systems. There are many other successful drugs which act in this way such as Codeine>Morphine. Generally the effects of Adrafinil are comparably similar to those of Modafinil, however there are some slight difference in subtle feeling and duration. Adrafinil, is a popular nootropic as it is very easy to buy online using accredited nootropic stores, and what’s more is you can order safely using normal card processors and Paypal-unlike with Modafinil.


Adrafinil is actually known as a pro-drug


Many drugs have their generic name, however their trade name is assigned by the company which first patented and synthesised the chemical. French pharmaceutical company Lafon first synthesised Adrafinil (known in tests as CRL-40028) and gave it the trade name Olmifon. It was first indicated as a treatment for those suffering from excessive daytime fatigue for those with illnesses and for those with shift work that required unusual working times. It is also marketed to aid in focus and attention for those who suffer from ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). So how exactly does this chemical act within the body to create this effect? Well, some studies have suggested a mechanism involving a hormone known as hypercretin, which is able to facilitate the feeling of wakefulness. The more hypercretin your body has access to to, the higher your levels of certain neurotransmitters such as dopamine, and histamine. It is also able to increase levels of adrenalin, which when combined with the other two neurotransmitters mentioned, can induce a powerful state of attention. Consequently, many students, athletes and professional have chosen Adrafinil as the proffered supplement for their study sessions, workouts or day-to-day activities.


Simply having the energy to do something does not mean you will enjoy it!



As touched on earlier, adrafinil is able to manipulate levels of rewards hormones such as dopamine and serotonin although to a much lesser extent. This means that users have reported a small but significant mood boost when taking Adrafinil. This is strangely important, because those who are working on a somewhat tedious task, are able to work long hours with a general good mood and this is important in maintain moral and working through the task. Simply having the energy to do something does not mean you will enjoy it. It is also thought that Adrafinil can act on the bodies glutamate receptors and promote wakefulness through this mechanism. Other popular nootropics such as Aniracetam ans Piracetam have also been implicated in this cognitive pathway and so it is not unlikey that Adrafinil may have a similar action and end result. Glutamate is extremely important in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity.


Unlike other nootropics which are generally regarded to have very subtle actions of memory and stimulation, adrafinil generally receives very positive reviews from even the most sceptical users. This is because the peripheral feeling of stimulation is very apparent, and although you may not instantly feel a “rush” you will definitely know that you were “on something” the following day. Most people will describe Adrafinil as the best nootropics they have tried, other than Modafinil.

Generally, after reading the subjective user reports of the difference between Adrafinil and Modafinil the consensus seems to point towards a slightly longer peak plasma time (time it takes for the drug to be at full concentrations in your body) and a slightly lower efficacy with regards to dosage. Although these difference are present, they are subtle, and the nootropic community has accepted Adrafinil as a more than adequate substitute for Modafinil. Do not push it too far… should not over do it Although individual reactions will vary with any substance, it is suitable to take anywhere from 150mg to 300mg a day, depending on your desired effect. The best option is to try a small amount and gauge your dose after the first effects, some people will need more and some less. Being water soluble, many decide to simply mix the pure powder in with water and sip slowly, whereas, others will prefer a capsule. It should be noted that capsules will incure more costs if ordered in this form, so it maybe best (time permitting) to encapsulate yourself. Do not push it too far, although being a nootropic by definition, you should not over do it, and you should always practice due diligence beforehand.[/tab] [/tabcontent] [/tabs]


Modafinil Vs Adrafinil


Generally, after reading the subjective user reports of the difference between Adrafinil and Modafinil the consensus seems to point towards a slightly longer peak plasma time (time it takes for the drug to be at full concentrations in your body) and a slightly lower efficacy with regards to dosage. Although these difference are present, they are subtle, and the nootropic community has accepted Adrafinil as a more than adequate substitute for Modafinil.


Do not push it too far… should not over do it


Although individual reactions will vary with any substance, it is suitable to take anywhere from 150mg to 300mg a day, depending on your desired effect. The best option is to try a small amount and gauge your dose after the first effects, some people will need more and some less. Being water soluble, many decide to simply mix the pure powder in with water and sip slowly, whereas, others will prefer a capsule. It should be noted that capsules will incure more costs if ordered in this form, so it maybe best (time permitting) to encapsulate yourself. Do not push it too far, although being a nootropic by definition, you should not over do it, and you should always practice due diligence beforehand.


adrafinil capsules and pillsAre there side effects with Adrafinil?


Generally, when compared to normal stimulants, there is little incidence of adverse drug reactions with adrafinil. However, that said, you should be aware that Adrafinil may cause an elevated heartbeat and elevated blood pressure. This type of reaction is the sort of thing you may experience if you had a strong coffee so don’t be alarmed. One important point is that adrafinil does not exhibit the strong side effects you would see in drugs such as amphetamines or other common stimulants.


The main concern in the nootropics community is that of possible adrafinil liver toxicity which has been discussed in some forums. This may occur because Adrafinil is a pro-drug, it requires the liver to be actively converting it into the active metabolite-Modafinil, this will undoubtedly put some extra strain on the liver. The extent of this strain is fully dose dependant. Some have pointed out that the relative risk it possess is akin to that posed by taking Tylenol (an opiate painkiller). However, In healthy individuals with normal liver function it is not necessary to worry about this side effect. Simply take it slow, know your body and reactions and keep everything in moderation. Of course, if anything bad does happen and you do not feel right, seek professional medical advice at once.


So where can I buy Adrafinil?


Lucky for you adrafinil is actually abundantly available on the internet ecommerce scene. You can literally buy in in capsule or powder form, from many reputable sources. Retails prices will vary, but generally you can get your hands on 10g of pure powder for just under $40.